by Life Enthusiast Staff
This list includes three categories of substances and processes regarded as carcinogenic, primarily by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation (IARC), and to a lesser extent, the US Government's Annual Report on Carcinogens from the National Toxicology Program (NTP).
Although there are some difference in categorisation, for convenience we have combined the lists under a common nomenclature. There are some minor omissions and exclusions of exotic materials. Please notify us of any errors or omissions considered important.
Category 1 is for substances for which there is sufficient evidence for a causal relationship with cancer in humans (confirmed human carcinogen).
Category 2A is for substances for which there is a lesser degree of evidence in humans but sufficient evidence in animal studies, or degrees of evidence considered appropriate to this category, e.g. unequivocal evidence of mutagenicity in mammalian cells (probable human carcinogen).
Category 2B is for substances for which there is sufficient evidence in animal tests, or degrees of evidence considered appropriate to this category (possible human carcinogen).
Excluded from the list above are IARC category 3 carcinogens for which assessment evidence is 'limited'.
All IARC monographs up to issue 60, 1994 and the NTP Sixth Report on Carcinogens are included; (and will update both sources soon).
There is more information in the original IARC and NTP documents, including a more detailed description of categories and carcinogenicity evidence.
Note: This is just a list of chemical that have been linked to cancer. Issues of exposure and dosage need to be also considered.
Arsenic and arsenic compounds
Manufacture of auramine
Beryllium and compounds (upgraded from 2A)
Betel quid with tobacco
Bis(chloromethyl)ether and chloromethyl methyl ether (technical grade)
Boot and shoe manufacture and repair (occupational exposure)
1,4 Butanediol dimethanesulphonate (Myleran)
Cadmium and compounds (upgraded from 2A)
Chloromethyl methyl ether (technical)
Chromium compounds (hexavalent)
Coal tar pitches
Furniture and cabinet making
Underground haematite mining with exposure to radon
Iron and steel founding
Isopropyl alcohol manufacture (strong acid process)
Manufacture of magenta (see also magenta, 2B)
8-Methoxypsoralen (Methoxsalen) plus ultraviolet radiation
Mineral oils_untreated and mildly-treated oils
MOPP and other combined chemotherapy for cancer
Mustard gas (sulphur mustard)
Nickel and nickel compounds (essentially sulphate and sulphide)
Nonsteroidal oestrogens (not necessarily all in group); includes
Oestrogen replacement therapy and
Combined oral contraceptives and sequential oral contraceptives
Steroidal oestrogens (not all in group)
Painter (occupational exposure as a painter)
Phenacetin (analgesic mixtures containing)
Salted fish, Chinese style
Sulphuric acid (occupational exposures to strong-inorganic-acid mists of
Talc containing asbestiform fibres
Tobacco products (smokeless)
Benzidine-based dyes (technical grade)
Carbon black extract
Chlorinated paraffins of average carbon-chain length C12 and average
degree of chlorination approx 60%
alpha-Chlorinated toluenes (not necessarily all in group)
Chlorophenoxy herbicides (not necessarily all in group)
CI Acid Red 114
CI Basic Red 9
CI Direct Blue 15
Citrus Red No.2
Cobalt and cobalt compounds
1,3-Dichloropropene (technical grade)
Diesel fuel (marine)
Diglycidyl resorcinol ether
Disperse Blue 1
Fuel oils (residual, heavy)
Fusarium moniliforme (toxins derived from)
Fumonisin B1; Fumonisin B2; Fusarin C
Gasoline engine exhausts
HC Blue No 1
gamma isomer (lindane)
Lead and lead compounds (inorganic)
Magenta (containing CI Basic Red 9)
Man-made mineral fibres (see glasswool, rockwool, slagwool, and ceramic fibres)
Methylmercury compounds (methylmercuric chloride)
Methylazoxymethanol and its acetate
2-methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone (uncertain purity)
Nitrofen (technical grade)
Nitrogen mustard N-oxide
Nitrolotriacetic acid and its salts
Panfuran S (containing dihydroxymethylfuratzine)
Phenyl glycidyl ether
Pickled vegetables, traditional Asian
Propylene oxide (downgraded from 2A)
Textile manufacturing (occupational exposures)
Toxaphene (polychlorinated camphenes)
Trichlormethine (trimustine hydrochloride)
Carpentry and joinery
International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organisation,
Monographs volumes 1-60, 1972-1994 and Supplement 7 1987.
US Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program,
Sixth Annual Report on Carcinogens, 1991.
"The Cure For All Diseases" by Hulda Clark, for more details about sources of those of those toxins.
"Reversing Alzheimer", by Tom Warren.
"Natural Organic Hair and Skin Care" - Includes an A to Z Guide to Natural & Synthetic Chemicals in Cosmetics, published by Organica Press, ISBN 0-939157-00-4. http://www.aubrey-organics.com