Dream and Lie of Louis Pasteur - Part 729.12.2012
by Pearson - Robert B.
The 11th Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council of England (1868) contains a paper by Dr Burdon Sanderson entitled "On the Inoculability and Development of Tubercles" (p.91). In this he describes experiments he made which proved to his satisfaction that tuberculosis often followed the inoculation of animals with various materials (mostly biological) from non-tubercular sources, and that even a wound might be followed by tuberculosis. He says in part (p.92):
"The facts from which I had concluded that tuberculosis may originate traumatically, although very limited in number, were so positive in nature that I ventured to state that the results of tuberculosis inoculation could be no longer regarded as necessarily dependent on any property or action possessed by the inoculated material in virtue of its having been taken from a tuberculous individual. The truth of this inference has now been completely established by the experiments of two of the most competent observers, Dr Wilson Fox, Professor of Clinical Medicine in University College and Dr Cohnheim of Berlin. The following paragraph contains a summary of their results, which are the more valuable as they were arrived at altogether independently and without knowledge either of each other's inquiries or mine.
From the tabular summary of Dr Fox's experiments (117 in number) it appears that of 70 animals inoculated with various products derived from the bodies of non-tuberculous patients, about half (34) became tuberculous. In addition, five animals were inoculated with putrid but originally healthy muscle, and four of them became tuberculous, as was found when they were killed at various periods from 84 to 122 days after inoculation. Of seven animals in which setons or other mechanical irritants were introduced under the skin, two became tuberculous. This research, no less remarkable for the accuracy and completeness of the anatomical details, than for the conclusiveness of the experiments, was followed only the other day by another in Berlin, which although of similar nature, appears by internal evidence to have been conducted in entire ignorance of the fact that several of the questions investigated had already been completely settled in England.
Drs Cohnheim and Frankel, to establish whether artificial tubercle owe its origin to a specific virus, introduced into the peritonaeal cavities of guinea pigs portions of various tumours (carcinoma, sarcoma, condyloma, etc.) as well as portions of healthy but partly decomposed tissue. Subsequently they employed in the same way a variety of insoluble inert substances such as blotting paper, charpie, gutta percha, caoutchouc, vulcanite, etc. In those animals that survived the immediate effects of the injury, emaciation supervened sooner or later and the animal eventually died with tuberculosis of the peritoneum, liver, spleen, lungs, and other organs, the morbid appearances corresponding in every respect with those described in my last report.
As regards the bearing of these facts on the general question of the nature and origin of tuberculosis; I concluded from my own observations that there is no structural distinction between the artificial disease and human tubercle, so long as the term is confined, as all accurate writers are now accustomed to confine it to miliary tuberculosis; but I considered it necessary to maintain a reserve as to its relation with the many pathological processes which are spoken of as tuberculosis in the common language of practical medicine and surgery.
In going so far the two distinguished pathologists already quoted have fully agreed with me. Dr Fox says:
"I must confess that sceptical as everyone must naturally at first feel on this subject, the cumulative force of the evidence in favour of the tubercular nature of these growths appears to me irresistible. We are either dealing with tubercle, or we have before us a new and hitherto unknown constitutional disease of the rodentia, consisting of growths which, to the naked eye and in their histology, correspond with all the essential features of tubercle in man; which occur not only in the organs which are the chosen seats of tubercle in man, but also in the same parts of those organs; which have the same vital characters, and the same early degenerative cheesy changes, not suppuration nor acute softening, and with no marked characters sufficient to distinguish them from tubercle."
"All the marks by which tubercle is characterized are present; the agreement of the product of inoculation with human miliary tubercle could not be more complete than it is, whether regard be had to its extended distribution and to the great variety of organs affected, (peritoneum, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen, lymphatic glands, and even the choroid), or to its macroscopic and microscopic characters.'"
Gould, in the second edition of his Pocket CyclopÎdia of Medicine and Surgery describes "acute miliary tuberculosis" as:
"An acute and rapid form of tuberculosis, which generally occurs in persons under 15 years of age, and in which the tubercle bacilli are rapidly disseminated through the body by the breaking down of some localized form of the disease ... the duration is from 2 to 4 weeks and the termination is fatal."
Or, could not this "localized form" be introduced by a needle, in the way Dr Sanderson describes? Are not "persons under 15" the school doctor's best customers for their so-called biologicals? And does not this "rapid dissemination through the body" sound remarkably like de Kruif's description of the way in which Koch's tuberculous germs spread through his guinea pigs? Miss Hume says in Bechamp or Pasteur?:
"It is noteworthy that neither Pasteur nor any of his successors have ever induced a complaint by the inoculation of air-carried bacteria, but only by injections from bodily sources."
I believe this would account for a very large part of our "miliary tuberculosis" in persons under 15; undoubtedly it followed the injection of some biological! And Miss Hume's description would include all biologicals of every description!
Dr Sanderson continues:
"My further inquiries lead me to believe, in the first place that these characters belong much more generally to tuberculous growths than I had at first supposed; and secondly, that those normal tissues which possess them are much more liable to become the seat of the tuberculous process than others."
This is probably the most striking evidence in print that almost any sort of inoculation can cause tuberculosis in the animal inoculated, and of course it is reasonable to deduce from this that the same non-tuberculous inoculations would cause tuberculosis in man, any man, and in all probability, from any biological product whatsoever! Yet the ignorant serum doctor will tell us that these products are perfectly harmless!
The above article, which from the day it was first printed should have forever stopped the use of all biologicals on humans, was published over 20 years before Robert Koch of Berlin brought out his Tuberculin (in 1890), which proved such a terrible failure!
The Zoophilist for May 1st 1891 reported deaths in 123 "selected" cases in Berlin from November 1890 to February 1891 which caused Koch to fall "under a cloud", but he did not give up until the government finally closed him up because of the terrible death rate!
Dr Paul de Kruif describes this work of Koch's on the tuberculosis germ in rather lurid language49, yet recent efforts to produce a serum for tuber-culosis seem to justify his words. He says of Koch's search for the microbe:
"I have it!" he whispered, and called the busy Loeffler and the faithful Gaffhy from their own spyings on other microbes.
"Look," Koch cried, "one little speck of tubercle I put into this beast six weeks ago - there could not have been more than a few hundred of those bacilli in that small bit - now they've grown into billions! What devils they are, those germs - from that one place in the guinea pig's groin they have sneaked everywhere into his body, they have gnawed, they have gone through the walls of his arteries ... the blood has carried them into his bones ... into the farthest corner of his brain ..."
Read that over when your child brings home a card from school requesting permission to put the same sort of stuff into his blood, and tear up the card! He says that Koch found and grew different families or varieties of these deadly germs. I believe that by the doctors' standards at least, this would necessitate 43 different serums to immunize one against all 43 families, and this is probably not all the varieties there are of tuberculosis germs alone!
However, de Kruif passes over tuberculin with astonishing brevity, considering the space given to other matters that were of less importance. He says apologetically:
"... he was enormously respected, and against his own judgement he was trying to convince himself he had discovered a cure for tuberculosis. The authorities (scientists have reason occasionally to curse all authorities, no matter how benevolent) were putting pressure on him. At least so it is whispered now by veteran microbe hunters who were there and remember those brave times.
'We have showered you with medals and microscopes and guinea pigs - take a chance now and give us a big cure, for the glory of the fatherland, as Pasteur has done for the glory of France!' It was ominous stuff like this that Koch was always hearing. He listened at last, and who can blame him, for what man can remain at his proper business of finding out the ways of microbes with governments bawling for a place in the sun - or with mothers calling? So Koch listened and prepared his own disaster by telling the world about his Tuberculin."
And here de Kruif changes the subject very abruptly! On page 299 he refers to it again, in discussing malaria, as follows:
"Dean of the microbe hunters of the world, Tsar of Science (his crown was only a little battered) Koch had come to Italy to prove that mosquitoes carry malaria from man to man.
Koch was an extremely grumpy, quiet, and restless man now; sad because of the affair of his consumption cure (which had killed a considerable number of people) ... so Koch went from one end of the world to the other, offering to conquer plagues but not quite succeeding."
Neither are his successes in the use of serums, nor is there any likelihood of success in that direction, as we hope to show.
J.W. Browne, B.A., M.B., Medical Superindent of the Kalyra Sanatorium, South Australia, quotes Koch at length to the effect that, while an injection of tuberculin into a healthy person will probably start a tubercular sore, an injection into anyone already infected will counteract or 'kill' the first infection, without doing anything more!
Note that he admits that it causes tubercular sores in the well! Hence you'd better know whether you have tuberculosis or not before you take it!
However, this reversible characteristic of making the well sick, and the sick well, existed only in Koch's imagination, as is indicated in his own work. Anyone with such a belief must be credited with care in giving such stuff only to tubercular people, and those who received it died so fast the government had to close him up! Incidentally, cattlemen have contended for many years that it made healthy cattle tubercular.
Dr Browne says:
"Up to date upwards of two hundred different forms of tuberculin have been prepared and described.
The simple fact of the matter is that no one has yet been able to repeat Koch's experiment successfully.
There is no evidence but Koch's in favour of tuberculin as a therapeutic cure for tuberculosis in guinea pigs, in calves, or in man. No one but Koch has been able to cure an infected guinea pig by the use of tuberculin of any sort or description. Koch, as Shera says, was an optimist. There is no question that tuberculin can do infinite harm. Scores of people have died prematurely at its hands. Never was there such a commercial vaccine as this one, and never has there been such a gigantic hoax. Tuberculin, Shera says, should not come within the range of vaccine therapy. Whatever good results are imputed to tuberculin must have occurred in spite of it, for its virtues are founded on experiments which cannot be repeated.
The disbeliever too, can point to many cases where the administration of tuberculin in pulmonary disease has been undoubtedly followed by disaster and, while he freely admits the undoubted powers of the tuberculin therapist to stir up the embers and kindle the fire, he has hitherto asked him in vain for any evidence of power to extinguish the fire."
He (rightly, I believe) considers pulmonary tuberculosis to be at least in part "and to a greater or less extent" a septicemia, and adds:
"The failure of vaccines to affect the disease in any but an adverse manner is thus explained. As we all know vaccines have invariably been found useless or worse than useless in septicemias."
Such statements, coming from a physician of Dr Browne's experience, should write finis on the use of tuberculin as a cure forever; and it is no better as a 'test'.
Drs Petroff and Branch, in a discussion of the B.C.G. vaccine used on children, finds that tuberculin seems to spread tuberculosis in those who have the latent or 'benign' form which vaccination is supposed to give.
Note also that the tuberculin seemed to spread tuberculosis in these cattle 'tests' as it did in Koch's experiments on humans. They say:
"Tzekhnovitzer claims that guinea pigs become hypersensitive to tuberculin after treatment with B.C.G ... 70 per cent of those infected orally and 45 per cent of those infected by the subcutaneous route react.
"Guerin, Richart and Bossiera studied a large number of cattle on a farm. On this farm in 1915 in a herd of 67 head, 47 per cent reacted positively to the tuberculin test. Year after year, the positive animals were slaughtered. In 1918, 38 per cent were still positive to the tuberculin test. In 1920, the number of reactors was 41.7 percent. Vaccination in the newborn cattle started on Jan. 1, 1921. In 1922, one year after the vaccination, 20 cattle gave a definitely positive and nine a very suspicious tuberculin reaction, or a total of 45 percent of 64 head. Many of these animals were vaccinated and revaccinated. In 1923 there remained 26 of the 1919-1920 year animals, all giving a positive tuberculin reaction."
Note that after 47% were slaughtered in 1915, as were all animals testing positive in the following years, 38% were tubercular in 1918, and a full 100% of those animals which remained from the 1919-20 vaccinated group all gave a positive 'test'. This was undoubtedly due either to the vaccines used or the 'tests' themselves, which confirms the opinions of the authorities quoted above! Could any dairyman survive such a loss?
"In the meantime, the second generation of these vaccinated animals were revaccinated, and the vaccination repeated each following year ... there is no record of how many of the vaccinated cattle became infected, as the tuberculin test was omitted on Calmettes' suggestion, as he believes that it is of doubtful value, giving no information as far as exogenous (outside) infection is concerned.
Furthermore if in the vaccinated cattle an implantation of virulent organisms has taken place, setting up only a benign tuberculosis, tuberculin administered may bring about a violent allergic reaction disseminating the virulent organisms. In such an event, progressive disease may follow ...
Gradually the animal becomes resistant to this particular organism. However, as soon as a new organism is introduced into the herd, the occurrence of the disease is much more marked than before."
They do not mention the fact that these "implantations" may also occur in your child; nor do they realise that they can come through a change of the germ in the vaccine, but such is the case, as I showed in Germ Mutation (now out of print).
As occurred with 'flu' in the war, which was merely a mutation of the typhoid germ in the vaccines used against typhoid and paratyphoid, every vaccine may produce a 'new' form of germ which, as noted above, may "make the occurrence of the disease much more marked than previously".
This is why we had the 1918 flu epidemic, with the highest death rate on record. It is the reason Koch had so many deaths, and also the reason for the large increases in the death rates of other diseases as noted in Chapter 9.
Koch found 43 varieties or strains of tuberculosis and there are probably as many strains of any other disease. The very multiplicity of these strains, and the ease with which modification can occur on the shelf or in the tissues, is the fundamental reason why biologicals can never be used successfully.
F. Loehnis, soil biologist, and N. R. Smith, U.S. Department of Agriculture, have discussed this variability of germs at considerable length and conclude that any germ can break down into a filterable fluid and then develop into new forms that may be radically different from the original germ, their new characteristics depending mostly upon their environment. They believe this change is constantly going on in all groups of germs.
Hence new strains are always being formed and are usually more virulent than the old.
Doctors Petroff and Branch add:
"It seems that in spite of the vaccinations with B.C.G., and the sociological measures, the implantation with violent tubercle has taken place...
Lakhms of Lithuania, studying 472 vaccinated infants, reports that he obtained 10 times more positive reactions in the vaccinated children than in the unvaccinated."
The real fact is that tuberculin never had any diagnostic value. It was not offered as a test on animals until its failure as a cure on humans caused the German government to forbid such use; in other words, the manufacturers 'discovered' or invented this new use for it to preserve a market. The 'test' on cattle circumvented both the prohibition and its ill-repute as a cure, thus continuing the profits, which is all it is good for.
Read the account of the United States Agricultural Department's 'tests' on animals infected with the hoof-and-mouth disease from vaccines, in Chapter 8.
In Fasting and Man's Correct Diet, The Tuberculin Test a Fraud (out of print), Immunity (also out of print), and Drugless Cures, I give additional evidence that the use of tuberculin was a fraud, utterly useless, and that more recent serums are no better.
It has also been found that the soluble ferments of many animal serums will, in some humans at least, dissolve the red-blood corpuscles.
Elie Metchnikoff, the famous Russian scientist, says:
"It has long been known, however, that the serum of the blood of many animals will destroy the red corpuscles of a different species. This demonstration was afforded during the period when attempts were being made to transfuse the defibrinated blood of mammals, especially of the sheep, into man. This practice had to be abandoned in consequence of the difficulties resulting from the solution of the human red corpuscles."
Later, Buchner compared the action of alexine (the name given to the substance found to cause this action) to that of soluble ferments and referred it to the category of the digestive diastases."
This alexine is probably the same thing described by Bechamp as the liquid ferment mentioned in Chapter 2, and it should not destroy or even injure perfectly healthy blood or tissues, but who is perfectly healthy?
Dr M. R. Leverson says in the preface to his translation of The Third Element of the Blood that Bechamp isolated a series of soluble ferments which he called zymases, but which plagiarists renamed diastases to obscure his discoveries. Likewise, Bechamp discovered the reason for the coagulation of the blood.
"According to him the same alexine is capable of dissolving the red blood corpuscles of several species of vertebrates. Bordet,56 in a series of researches made in the Pasteur Institute, confirmed this view. He came to the conclusion that the alexines of the various species of animals differ from one another. Thus the alexine of the blood serum of the rabbit is not the same as that found in the serum of the guinea-pig or dog. Nevertheless each of these alexines is capable of exerting a solvent action on the red blood corpuscles of several species."
He continues, on page 95:
"It may, however, be admitted that the action of alexine (complement) comes under the category of phenomena that are produced by soluble ferments. The substance which dissolves the red blood corpuscles of mammals or a portion only of those of birds, undoubtedly presents great analogies to the digestive ferments. As has been mentioned repeatedly, it is very sensitive to the action of heat and is completely destroyed by heating for one hour at 55 degrees (C). In this respect, it closely resembles the macrocytase of macrophagic organs which also dissolves red corpuscles. As it is the macrophages which ingest and digest the red blood corpuscles in the organism, it is evident that alexine is nothing but the macrocytase which has escaped from the phagocytes during the preparation of the serums."
On page 401 of the same book, discussing artificial immunity against toxins rather than microbes, he says:
"When micro-organisms, living or dead, are introduced into an animal, it is found that anti-toxins do not as a rule, appear in the fluids; in these cases, the reaction is set up mainly by the microphages. The microphages represent the principal source of anti-toxins."
Is this point clear? All animal blood serums can dissolve the red blood corpuscles of several other species of animals, and many of them, for example that of the sheep, can dissolve the red blood corpuscles of man!
It is also possible that due to the wide variations in the character of the blood and blood serum, etc., both in the animals used and in the patients treated, due to both individual and possibly also racial differences, the serum from any particular animal might have a very injurious effect on the blood or other body fluids of a percentage of human patients treated, as indicated by the many deaths that follow the use of anti-toxin, even though it might not be injurious to all.
Note that they compare this stuff to a soluble ferment, which can go through a china filter, and eat red blood corpuscles, pink dynamite and other things; and this is "the principal source of anti-toxins."
It may be true that most horses' blood serum will not dissolve human red blood corpuscles, but how can we know, with all the variations possible, both in the horse, and in man, that some particular horse serum will not dissolve the red blood corpuscles of one or more children in any school which the serum squirters choose to 'protect', as they call it?
This might be the direct cause of the tuberculosis discussed above, and many other troubles that often follow the vaccination of thousands of children, and others.
We quoted Professor Bechamp as to the amount of material a solvent ferment can digest in Chapter 2, and Bechamp and other authorities say that a solvent ferment will survive much higher temperatures than 55 degrees C. This danger, therefore, exists in almost every biological on the market!
There is also the danger that some serum might contain the alexine of some animal other than a horse, which could be even more dangerous.
Furthermore, even though a serum cannot dissolve the red blood corpuscles, it might dissolve the leucocytes, the so-called white corpuscles, and this tendency seems to be much more common; in fact, it seems to be the basis of the process of artificial immunity!
For instance, Metchnikoff says:
"When into the peritonaeal cavity of vaccinated guinea-pigs a certain quantity of cholera culture containing virulent and very motile vibrios is injected, we find that in the peritonaeal fluid drawn off by means of a fine pipette, the vibrios have undergone profound changes in the refractory organism. Even a few minutes after the injection of the vibrios, the leucocytes disappear almost completely from the peritonaeal fluid; and only a few small lymphocytes and a large number of vibrios, the majority of which are already transformed into granules, are found; and there is presented a most typical case of Pfeiffer's phenomenon.
Alongside the round granules may be seen swollen vibrios, and others which have kept their normal form, but all are absolutely motionless. Some of these granules are gathered into small clumps, others remain isolated in the fluid. When to the hanging drop containing these transformed vibrios a small quantity of a dilute aqueous solution of methylene blue is added, we observe that certain granules stain very deeply, while others take on merely a very pale tint, scarcely visible. Many of these granules are still alive, because it is easy to watch them develop outside the animal and elongate into new vibrios. A large number of the granules, however, no longer exhibit any signs of life and are evidently dead.
R. Pfeiffer and certain other observers affirm that the granules may be completely dissolved in the peritonaeal fluid just as a piece of sugar dissolves in water. We have repeatedly sought for this disappearance of the granules in hanging drops of the peritonaeal fluid, without being able to find any diminution in the number of these transformed vibrios, even after several days. Nor have we been able to observe the phenomenon of the solution of the granules. It is, at any rate, indisputable that this granular transformation is a manifestation of very profound lesions undergone by the cholera vibrios under the influence of the peritonaeal fluid of the immunized animal.
On the other hand, one is compelled to the conclusion that the granular transformation is due, as we shall see later, to a fermentative action of the peritonaeal exudation."
Some authorities have considered the leucocytes to be an essential part of the blood, in which case their dissolution should be a dangerous loss to the person concerned. In my opinion, however, the leucocytes are nothing more than body waste or refuse in the process of elimination, and their dissolution immediately places a liquid toxic poison in the blood with no means of preventing it being absorbed, wherever the blood goes, into any and all tissues. Hence the possibility that the brain, the heart, or other organs not intended to handle these toxic poisons might absorb some of them.
Have you ever seen two leucocytes that were the same size or shape? They appear to vary widely in both characteristics - looking, in fact, more like crumbled cheese than living tissues.
Other authorities have described other dangers in the use of serums, for instance Dr E. C. Rosenow, then of the Mayo Clinic, said over 25 years ago that certain varieties of germs in serums used in his experiments had "an affinity for the heart valves"!
He describes experiments in which he found that the green-producing variety of germs in the serums attacked the valves of the heart, while a certain hemolyzing variety attacked the body joints, thus causing rheumatism!
In November 1925, the Chicago Health Department stated that:
"...more children of the ages of 10 to 14 die of heart disease in Chicago than of all other children's diseases put together!"
If Dr Rosenow's statements are true, do you wonder that Chicago children are dropping dead on the street, with all the serumization that is practised in our schools? In the olden days, it was very rare for a child of 10 to 14 years of age to die of heart disease.
Dr Frederick Hoffman, Ll.D., Consulting Statistician of the Prudential Insurance Company of America, said:
"Heart diseases in all civilized countries are the leading cause of death and of a vast amount of physical impairment. As far as it is possible to judge, the relative frequency of heart disease in proportion to population has everywhere been increasing during the last two decades, although evidence to this effect is more or less conflicting."
While most diseases that kill mankind off have gone down at an almost wonderful pace since sanitation was first introduced to the world, this particular one is increasing, for some reason the authorities profess not to understand.
Note that those immigrants from countries having compulsory vaccination die off at a rate three to four times higher than immigrants from countries not having compulsory vaccination.
There is no doubt that there are other causes to be considered, such as sanitation, living conditions, diet, and that the relative vitality of the different races may vary, so why should these death rates seem to divide simply on their vaccinal conditions? And granting this, why does heart disease lead all other diseases in the difference between the high rates and the low?
It seems to me that this chart alone is very conclusive evidence that the statements we have quoted in this chapter, as to biologicals causing both tuberculosis and heart disease, are correct.
In regard to Italy, which passed a law for the compulsory vaccination of infants in 1888, we still class it in the 'without' column, because in 1910, the time of this census, probably not over 25% of the immigrants in New York State would be under 22 years of age and thus affected by the law, and it is very likely that the law was inefficiently enforced for the earlier years, thus allowing many to escape. Furthermore, all of those vaccinated would still be too young for the full effects of any injurious biologicals to become fully developed by 1910, hence Italy's inclusion in the unvaccinated column.
Statistics of later years seem to indicate that Italy now has death rates comparable with other countries having compulsory vaccination, which can only serve to strengthen the idea that the fad for serums is the cause!
Dr Rosenow also speaks of other troubles that may follow the use of biologicals.
In a series of articles based on the influenza epidemic of 1918 and published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, and also in the Collected Papers of the Mayo Clinic, Vols 10, 11, and 12, he describes many changes in serums or in patients which rendered the serum useless.
In Vol. 10, page 919, he observes of the pneumococcus-streptococcus group, of which he thought mutation forms were responsible for the 1918 pandemic:
"... marked changes in morphology, growth characteristics, infective powers, and immunological reactions. Many of these changes appear to be true mutations."
On page 949 of the same volume, he ascribed deaths following the use of certain serums to some change or mutation in either the serum or patient.
While, I believe, a serum is supposed to cure by 'agglutinating' all germs of that exact kind which it finds in the body, when there is a slight difference in germs, or changes occur, either in the patient's germs or in those in the serum, no "agglutination" takes place, and the patient is apt to die, unless sanitary or other measures are taken to save him.
Most regular physicians will say in such a condition that there is no hope, but if drugless physicians are called in, or if enemas are given, there is more than hope. In fact I believe two or three enemas a day and an exclusive fruit juice diet for a while would save the great majority of these cases.
However, this is not meant to be a discussion of the treatment of disease, which is covered in other books.
That this change or mutation of germs is a very serious handicap in treating diseases by means of serums or vaccines is indicated all through the series of ten papers that Dr Rosenow published in Vol. 12 of the Mayo Clinic papers.
He says in Vol. 12, page 920, that the serum used on some guinea pigs "tended to localize in the lungs".
In Vol. 12, page 1001, he says:
"Moreover, marked changes in the immunological condition as measured by agglutination tests have occurred in a number of strains following successive (intratracheal) animal passages."
He added that when the changes occurred, "no good effects were noted".
If passage through animal tissue will cause "marked changes in the immunological condition", how can anyone know that passage through human tissues, for example from the arm into the body, will not do the same?
And where can you find a serum or vaccine that has not had an animal passage at some previous time? They are nearly all propagated in animals at present and a substantial percentage of all "passages" seem to cause a change. In table 4 he shows 35 changes in 44 cases, and one of the other nine had changed in a previous experiment; that makes changes in over 81% of the tests!
So you see, this change is no minor accident; in fact, it occurs with great frequency, as Bechamp proved many years ago.
And these changes in the germs mentioned are of vital importance, as they often merely substitute a new disease for the one vaccinated against.
Pasteur seemed to recognize the importance of this point as he vehemently denied its possibility to the very last, and made bitter personal attacks on Bechamp and other colleagues who opposed his ideas for this reason.
Now that this has been proven so overwhelmingly, we can see how a vaccine for any one disease could start some other disease through these mutation forms. We shall then need more serums for the new disease, or more likely, several new diseases may develop, and so on, ad infinitum.
In the pamphlets Germ Mutation and Immunity, Artificial vs Natural, I give some important evidence indicating that the 1918 influenza epidemic was caused by mutation in vaccines used to 'prevent' typhoid in the armies in Europe.
When they inoculated against typhoid, they soon found that they had a para-typhoid on their hands, and the percentage of paratyphoid in those inoculated was identical to the second decimal place with the percentage of typhoid in those not inoculated.
And when they gave two "shots", one for each of these, they discovered a second paratyphoid, so to be scientific they called them 'A' and 'B.'
And, as scientists must always be 'scientific', they then gave the boys three shots, one for each of the above diseases, whereupon they found a fourth 'disease' - influenza - and the world's highest recorded death rate at that! The Surgeon General of the A.E.F. said of this 'influenza':
"The ordinary clinical picture of typhoid paratyphoid is frequently profoundly modified in vaccinated individuals ... intestinal types of supposed influenza should always be considered as possible typhoid until proven otherwise. Vaccination is a partial protection only, and must be reinforced by sanitary measures."
Furthermore, supposing that there is no change and that a serum or vaccine 'agglutinates' perfectly, what proof have we that it will either prevent or cure any disease?
Elie Metchnikoff, says:
"The most carefully studied case of the relations between natural immunity and agglutination is of that encountered in the anthrax bacillus. We owe it to Gengou, who at the Liege Bacteriological Institute carried out a very detailed investigation of this question.
He showed that the bacillus of Pasteur's first anthrax vaccine is agglutinated by the blood serum of a great number of animals. But he also showed that the serums which have the greatest agglutinative action on this bacillus do not come from the most refractory species. Human serum agglutinates most strongly the bacillus of the first vaccine (in the proportion of one part of serum to 500 parts of culture) but man is far from being exempt from anthrax.
Pigeons' serum, on the other hand, is completely without any agglutinative power, although this species resists not only the first vaccine but very often virulent anthrax. The serum of the ox, a species susceptible to anthrax, is more agglutinative (1:120) than that of the refractory dog (1:100).
All these facts fully justify the conclusion formulated by Gengou that we cannot establish any relation between the agglutinating power and the refractory state of the animals to anthrax ... this conclusion may be extended to the phenomena of the agglutination of micro-organisms and to those of natural immunity in general."
It is quite likely that most physicians will acknowledge that when the changes in a germ as described above occur, there is practically no possibility of it preventing or curing any disease, and while these changes may not run as high as 80% with all biologicals, nevertheless we have shown that it can and does occur with sufficient frequency to render all such methods utterly unworthy of confidence, and unfit to rely on to any degree.
And Professor Metchnikoff's statement that agglutination is of no value as an indication of immunity or curing power seems to wipe out any small remaining chance that serums can be beneficial, under any conditions.
In other words, it seems that when we get vaccinated and fail to catch any disease afterwards, it is either only an accident, or is due more to our natural immunity than to the serum.