by Life Enthusiast Staff
B-vitamins, including thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), and niacin (vitamin B3), are added to white flour products and other foods that have been depleted of those vitamins. Unfortunately, your regulators can't anticipate all your needs, so you'd be better off eating natural foods, because industrial food producers will not put into their product anything beyond the regulated amount.
Biotin, is usually not a problem. Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), on the other hand, appears to be in short supply in the typical diet. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is important in prevention of heart disease by helping to regulate blood homocysteine levels.
Folic acid deficiency is common in the U.S., affecting about 11% of healthy people. While FDA raised the required supplementation levels, these increases are not enough to prevent heart disease and birth defects. The requirement for folic acid doubles during pregnancy.
Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in people taking acid-blocking drugs. Folic acid, B12 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) are important for the control of homocysteine levels in the blood. Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with several diseases, including heart disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and osteoporosis. Daily supplementation with B-vitamins lowers elevated homocysteine levels.
Vitamin B-1 (Thiamine)
Helps cells create life energy. Essential for good attitude and morale. A plentiful supply enhances learning ability. Important for growth, muscles, digestion, appropriate appetite, healthy intestines and heart. Helps reduce cholesterol deposits. A building block of enzymes. Even more critical where dieting, smoking, coffee, tea, alcohol, sugar or extreme physical exertion are lifestyle factors. A necessary nutrient when alertness, intellect and memory fade, or in cases of confusion, fatigue and emotional instability. Valuable when there is concern to avoid cancer of the uterus. Speeds healing after dental treatments. Related to cleansing of lactic acid (muscle pain) after exercise. Helps the body detoxify lead. Useful in diabetes. Possibly of benefit in herpes and other infections. Said to repel fleas and other insects for some people. Many symptoms of alcoholism are related to a deficiency of B-1, aggravated by the toxic chemistry of alcohol. Regular consumers of alcohol may require many times the RDA of B-1 to support balance of the nutrient.
Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin)
Foundational to a group of metabolic enzymes necessary for utilization of fats, proteins and carbohydrates (energy and life). Essential for cellular utilization of oxygen. Also important for eyesight, healthy hair, skin and nails. Problems with mucous membranes, the eyes and eyelids, cracks at the corners of the mouth, trembling, sluggishness and hair loss may be indicators of suboptimal intake. Riboflavin is associated with the powerful antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase protecting your cells from free-radical damage and premature aging. Often deficient in snack-based diets common to many elderly people. Exercise and/or high-fiber diets greatly increases need. Possibly helps protect from esophageal cancer. Enhances blood cell response to iron.
Functions as a coenzyme assisting utilization of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. A superior nutrient to reduce fat and to remove cholesterol from arterial walls. Important for strength, stamina and energy. Indicators of suboptimal intake include problems with bad breath, insomnia, irritability, weak orgasms, headaches, confusion, depression and digestion. Often used to improve circulation, thus improving health of the sexual organs. Also included in the chemistry of the experience of orgasms. Protects normal cells from malignant activity. Helpful in healing burns. Often reduces arthritic pain and stiffness. Reduces fatigue. Calming. Effective with acne. A proven detoxifier of dangerous drugs and toxic chemicals. Helps alleviate addictions. Possibly of benefit in diabetes, for migraine and to reduce blood pressure.
Pantothenic Acid (B-5)
A favorite of enthusiasts for youth and beauty. Essential for all life on earth. Functions as a coenzyme helping to create life energy within the cell. Critical to healthy nerves and skin. Necessary for utilization of other vitamins. Supports your immune system. Assists your body's processing of fats. Bolsters your ability to tolerate stress and speeds healing. Detoxifying. Limits damage from radiation. Reduces wrinkles. Slows effects of aging. Helps prevent arthritis. May help reduce hair loss and restore youthful color to grey hair. Beneficial intestinal flora provide a significant source of pantothenic acid.
A sound mind and solid nerves require plentiful amounts, otherwise fatigue and depression will surface. Pantothenic acid is required for sound sleep.
Useful in cases of fatigue, high cholesterol, fractures, joint disorders, anemia, insomnia, cataracts, intestinal worms, gas, leg cramps, morning stiffness and associated pain, allergies, acne, age spots, cancer and infections. Popular among enthusiasts for longevity, and to enhance athletic performance and reduce muscle pain. Helps detoxify alcohol.
Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine)
Necessary for utilization of other nutrients. Required for production and use of at least 60 major enzymes. Key to creation of RNA and DNA and their perfect function. Vital for protein synthesis. Critical for neurotransmitters influencing brain and nerve activity. Helps balance sodium and potassium for vigorous cellular respiration. Presence is crucial for antibody production.
A common supporting nutrient useful in cases of hemorrhoids, digestive problems, male sexual disorders, prostate problems, infertility, hair loss, radiation exposure, diabetes, heart problems, pregnancy, lactation, anemia, weakness, wrist problems, acne, dermatitis, age-related problems, cataracts, PMS and overweight due to water retention. Possible anticancer activity. Commonly deficient in cancer and AIDS.
Vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamin)
Essential for longevity. Energizes body and mind. Too complex to be synthesized - must be life-created. Contains traces of the mineral cobalt. Necessary for utilization of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Important for the functioning of other nutrients. Assists conversion of carotene into vitamin A. Enhances utilization of iron better assuring its necessary functions. On the scene at your body's creation of RNA and DNA. Enthusiasts (including a growing majority of doctors) claim it makes them feel younger and more energetic.
Especially important for your brain, nerves, blood, bone marrow, kidneys, liver, pancreas and hearing.
Suboptimal availability can be aggravated by intestinal worms and harmful intestinal bacteria, or by certain individuals' reduced ability to assimilate B-12. Symptoms include anemia, fatigue, arthritis, osteoporosis, numbness, bursitis, sore mouth, weakness in limbs, slow reflexes, poor senses, stammering, mental slowness, poor concentration and reasoning ability, depression, insomnia, forgetfulness, nervousness, bad body odor and menstrual problems.
Also useful in cases of bruising, age-related brain atrophy, protecting liver from toxins, and to improve resistance to infection.
There is convincing evidence that B-12 speeds recovery from surgery and from viral and bacterial diseases. B-12 helps protect lung cells from the cancerous chemistry of cigarette smoke. Deficiency is most common among vegetarians and vegans.
Beneficial intestinal microorganisms are a significant back-up source of B-12.
Pangamic Acid (B-15)
Said to promote cellular utilization of oxygen. (Cancer displaces normal cellular oxygen utilization with a chemistry based upon fermentation of sugar.) Claimed to promote optimum oxygenation of living tissue and increases in energy. Involved in protein metabolism and muscle strength, particularly the heart. Supportive of nerves and glandular systems.
The richest natural sources enjoy strong reputations as effective health foods. These include whole brown rice, whole grains, nutritional yeast, apricot kernels (popular food of the long-lived Hunzas), pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, rice polish and rice bran. B-15 enjoys greater awareness and wide use in Europe and Russia - typically ignored and unused in USA.
Possibly useful in cardiovascular concerns, high cholesterol, poor circulation and oxygenation, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, emphysema, cancer, mental deficiencies and to reduce cravings for alcohol.
Considered valuable by many enthusiasts for longevity and to enhance youthful performance by every measure. Investigators have noted improvements in vocabulary, speech, intellectual performance, concentration and interest in life and activity. Enjoys a reputation for increasing "flash brilliance" in orgasm and enhancing "friskiness" in older people - logical as circulation improves. Used to speed healing of muscle injuries.
Essential for energy due to its involvement in the chain of processes to form ATP (the basic life-energy molecule) - Thus effecting all cells, organs and systems. Biotin is necessary for the utilization of other nutrients. Biotin is the most expensive common nutrient (sometimes costing more than all of the other B vitamins put together) and thus often missing or lacking in supplements and supplement foods - easily deficient in a typical supermarket diet. Beneficial intestinal bacteria are a significant source of biotin. Antibiotics, raw egg white and dieting aggravate deficiency.
Useful in cases of high cholesterol, lowered hemoglobin, muscle pain, dermatitis, grey skin pallor, depression, insomnia and low energy. These are often indicators of low biotin.
Graying, cowlicks and hair loss are also common first indicators of sub-optimal biotin levels. There may be other causes, however, if the cause is low biotin, then supplementation will help. Energy levels should increase proportionately at the same time.
Involved in nucleic acid synthesis, Biotin is important for utilization of proteins and for skin and muscle building - Important for fat burning and for athletic performance.
see Lecithin for additional information
As a basic component of lecithin, choline is present in all living cells on Earth. Thus it is of paramount importance to all of your cells, organs and body systems. Your body's requirement for choline is enormous. Because it is so bulky, it is left out of supplements and supplement foods.
see Lecithin for additional information
As a basic component of lecithin, inositol is present in all living cells on earth. Thus it is of paramount importance to all of your cells, organs and body systems. Your body contains a huge amount of inositol. Because it is so bulky, it is left out of supplements and supplement foods. Caffeine aggravates sub-optimal inositol performance. Caffeine is a proven cause of cancer and birth defects.
In separate studies, cells deprived of inositol became abnormal. Oxygen utilization was inhibited. Levels of nucleotide coenzymes lowered, membranes deformed and cells died. Inositol may be especially important for caffeine addicts wishing to avoid cancer or who are planning to have healthy babies. The obvious choice is to eliminate caffeine and eat sufficient inositol in the form of lecithin.
Folic Acid (Folacin)
Functions as an all-important coenzyme in the use and reuse of proteins throughout the body. Critical to the formation of red blood cells and DNA effecting every cell in your body. Cells deprived of folic acid quickly developed serious chromosome breaks. Folic acid prevents chromosome breaks thus lowering the risk of cancer.
Especially important to accurate formation of the brain and spine in the fetus, and their proper functioning throughout life. Impacts every measure of mental performance and mental health.
Promotes vigorous digestion, limits intestinal parasites and reduces impact of food poisoning. Beneficial intestinal bacteria are a significant source of folic acid.
Folic acid is perhaps the most common deficiency in the typical modern, supermarket diet. A World Health Organization report indicates that up to half of all pregnant women experience folic acid deficiency. Age, smoking, stress, antibiotics, disease, cortisone, alcohol, pregnancy, dieting, medications and oral contraceptives aggravate deficiency. Birth defects forming during the first days/weeks of pregnancy are an unfortunate common indicator of deficiency. Countless victims of birth defects owe their condition to governmental and medical authorities (in Europe and the USA) whose reluctance to acknowledge even this one nutrient led to a decade of misinformation and ghastly studies with diets knowingly depriving pregnant women of folic acid to study this nutrients effect on the formation of their infants' brains and spines. Slow development and poor learning ability of the child are found with less severe deficiencies during pregnancy.
Folic acid is helpful in bringing pregnancy to full term, reducing anemia and limiting afterbirth hemorrhaging.
Folic acid is useful with fatigue, weakness, cardiovascular problems, stomach ulcers, menstrual problems, irritability, cramps, poor vision, cold hands and feet, anemia, leg ulcers, mental retardation, poor circulation and premature graying of hair. Aids in the production of pantothenic acid.
PABA (Para-aminobenzoic acid)
Occurs only in combination with folic acid as a vitamin within a vitamin. Functions in utilization of proteins. Enables beneficial intestinal bacteria to produce folic acid.
Regarded as useful for parasitic diseases, fatigue, depression, irritability, baldness, gray hair, constipation, and to soothe burn pain. Enthusiasts claim it delays wrinkles and aging of skin. Whole grains are a rich source.
It is important to keep intake in balance with other B-vitamins and thus below 30 mg.
More in depth description ...
Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
Thiamin or Thiamine, also known as Vitamin B1 is is a water-soluble vitamin needed to process carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Every cell of the body requires vitamin B1 to form the fuel the body runs on—adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nerve cells require vitamin B1 in order to function normally. The chemical name for this water soluble vitamin is 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium. Thiamine consist of a pyrimidine ring and a thiazole ring connected by a one carbon link. The nitrogen in the thiazole ring has a charge of +1.
Thiamine is a coenzyme for the decarboxylation of pyruvate and the oxidation of alpha keto-glutamic acid. Lipoic acid which is formed in the liver is also required for the reactions. Patients with liver disease may show signs of B1 deficiency, possibly because of deficient synthesis of lipoic acid. In vitro, thiamine deficiency produces accumulation of pyruvate and lactate, reduction of acetate, citrate and alpha-keto-glutarate and reduced acetylcholine synthesis. Any of these metabolic changes could be involved in dysfunction.
A major biologically active form of thiamine is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), sometimes called thiamine diphosphate (TDP) and cocarboxylase. In thiamine pyrophosphate the hydroxyl group of thiamine is replaced by a diphosphate ester group. The reaction site of TPP is carbon 2 of the thiazole ring. The proton on this carbon is rather acidic. When this proton dissociates a carbanion is formed which readily undergoes nucleophilic addition to carbonyl groups. TPP is a coenzyme for two types of enzymes, alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenases and transketolases, both of which cleave a C-C bond adjacent to a carbonyl group releasing either carbon dioxide or an aldehyde. The resulting product is then transferred to an acceptor molecule. alpha-Ketoacid dehydrogenases decarboxylate alpha-ketoacids. The decarboxylation product is then transferred to coenzyme A (CoA). Transketolases cleaves the CC bond adjacent to the carbonyl group of an alpha-ketosugar to give an activated glycoaldehyde. The glycoaldehyde is then combined with an aldose to give a new ketose. All known TPP dependent enzymes also require a divalent cation, commonly Mg2+.
Thiamin pyrophosphate is a coenzyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase, -ketoglutaran dehydrogenase and transketolase. Because the first two of these enzymes are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, thiamin deficiency causes problems with it. Thiamin deficiency also causes the diseases Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and beriberi, diseases common in chronic abusers of alcohol.
Thiamine aids the nervous system and is essential for the functioning of important enzymes. These enzymes have vital roles in the processes that make energy available in the body. Thiamine is essential for the transmission of certain types of nerve signal between the brain and the spinal cord. Depression, poor memory, muscle weakness and stiffness, nerve tingling, burning sensation and numbness, tiredness, headache, loss of appetite and nausea are some of the symptoms and signs of its deficiency.
Synonyms: 3-[(4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-5-(2-hydroxyethy l)-4-methylthia-zollum chloride monohydrochloride; Vitamin B1 hydrochloride
Chemical Formula: C12H18N4O5C12
Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin that supports energy metabolism and biosynthesis of a number of compounds through its coenzyme forms, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin adenine mononucleotide (FMN). Riboflavin is also required for activation and support of activity of vitamin B6, folate, niacin, and vitamin K. Vitamin B2 - riboflavin is required by the body to use oxygen and the metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. Riboflavin is further needed to activate vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), helps to create niacin and assists the adrenal gland. It may be used for red blood cell formation, antibody production, cell respiration, and growth. It eases watery eye fatigue and may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of cataracts. Vitamin B2 is required for the health of the mucus membranes in the digestive tract and helps with the absorption of iron and vitamin B6. Although it is needed for periods of rapid growth, it is also needed when protein intake is high, and is most beneficial to the skin, hair and nails.
Riboflavin is sensitive to destruction by light. Because milk is a primary source of riboflavin, opaque containers or ultraviolet light-blocking materials are used in packaging to preserve the riboflavin content. Riboflavin can also be destroyed in the presence of alkali such as baking soda. As with other B vitamins, riboflavin is lost by milling of grains. To compensate for these losses, white flour is enriched with this vitamin. Riboflavin is not part of the vitamin enrichment mixture added to white rice because the addition of this vitamin imparts a yellowish cast.
"Riboflavin is important to energy metabolism (processing nutrients like protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol that have calories to a form of energy that the body can use - ATP), normal eyesight and healthy skin. Foods high in riboflavin are milk, yogurt, cheeses, meat, leafy green vegetables, whole and enriched grains. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin and is easily destroyed by light. Oral contraceptives may cause a riboflavin deficiency as well. Riboflavin is important to both vegetarian and carnivores (meat eaters). If you include the above vegetables and grains in your diet, don't abuse alcohol, you will probably consume sufficient amounts of riboflavin." says Joanne Larsen, in Ask the Dietitian.
Riboflavin is essential for tissue respiration and the generation of energy from the carbohydrates, acids and fats. Riboflavin is vital for normal reproduction, growth, repair and development of body tissues including the skin, hair, nails, connective tissue and immune system. Severe riboflavin deficiency is rare and often occurs with other B vitamin deficiencies. Symptoms include red, swollen, cracked lips, mouth and tongue, aversion to bright light, loss of appetite, weakness, fatigue, depression, anemia, loss of vision, burning and itching of the eyes. Riboflavin's primary functions are as a component of two coenzymes that catalyze many oxidation-reduction reactions. These coenzymes are necessary to make energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.
The function of riboflavin is in oxidation/reduction reactions, that is, reactions that involve combining with oxygen or the removing of hydrogen. Working with thiamin, niacin, and panthothenic acid, it oxidizes fat and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide in order to produce energy. This occurs in the Kreb's cycle, which is the major energy pathway of most tissues in the body. Along with helping to produce energy, riboflavin participates in the body's defense system to oxidize toxins and foreign substances so they can be removed from the body. It also assists the enzyme glutathione reductase which replenishes the antioxidant glutathione in the eye, among other places. Studies in China have demonstrated the protective effects of riboflavin and niacin in preventing a common type of cataract. Riboflavin is also vital in the production of steroid hormones by the adrenal glands and is essential for successful reproduction.
The richest sources of riboflavin include organ meats such as liver, kidney and heart. Milk, yeast, cheese, oily fish, eggs and dark green leafy vegetables are also rich sources. Flour and cereals are enriched with riboflavin. Riboflavin is stable when heated but will leach into cooking water. It is easily destroyed by light, and foods stored in clear containers will lose their riboflavin content in a short period of time. Baking soda also destroy riboflavin.
Synonyms: 6,7-dimethyl-9-d-ribitylisoalloxazine, flavaxin, beflavin, 7,8-dimethyl-10-(d-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl) riboflavinequinone, hyflavin, lactoflavin, lactoflavine, ribipca, riboderm, riboflavinequinone, vitamin B2, vitamin G
Molecular formula: C17H20N4O6
Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide)
Vitamin B3, also known as Niacin, Niacinamide, or Nicotinic Acid, is one of eight water-soluble B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body to convert carbohydrates into glucose (sugar), which is "burned" to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, are essential in the breakdown of fats and protein. B complex vitamins also play an important role in maintaining muscle tone along the digestive tract and promoting the health of the nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, mouth, and liver. Vitamin B3 is required for cell respiration, helps in the release of energy and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, proper circulation and healthy skin, functioning of the nervous system, and normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids. It is used in the synthesis of sex hormones, treating schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, and a memory-enhancer.
Vitamin B3 (in the forms of Niacin and Niacinamide) is used by the body to release energy from carbohydrates. It’s also needed to form fat from carbohydrate and to process alcohol. Niacin is helpful in regulating cholesterol. Pellagra is a disease caused by Vitamin B3 deficiency. It is rare in Western societies. Symptoms include loss of appetite, skin rash, diarrhea, and digestive and emotional disturbances. Vitamin B3 also is effective in the treatment of anxiety, acting similarly to Valium.1 It makes an excellent bridge when stopping Valium treatments, easing the withdrawal symptoms. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) is necessary for mitochondrial metabolism. It also appears to reduce the severity and frequency of migraines by at least 50%. One form of Vitamin B3, niacinamide, appears to increase joint mobility, improve muscle strength, and decrease muscle and joint fatigue in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients.7 250 mg taken at least four times daily appears to show results in three to four months. Vitamin B3 (niacin) taken during the first trimester of pregnancy has been connected with larger and healthier babies at birth.
Vitamin B3 comes in two basic forms—niacin (also called nicotinic acid) and niacinamide (also called nicotinamide). A variation on niacin, called inositol hexaniacinate, is also available in supplements. Because it has not been linked with any of the usual niacin toxicity in scientific research, inositol hexaniacinate is sometimes prescribed by European doctors for those who need high doses of niacin. Nicotinic acid (but not nicotinamide) given in drug dosage improves the blood cholesterol profile, and has been used to clear the body of organic poisons, such as certain insecticides. People report more mental alertness when this vitamin is in sufficient supply. Niacin and Niacinamide (or Nicotinic Acid) work basically the same, but may be used differently. For example, Niacinamide is used to treat teoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, insomnia, migraine headaches, and insulin-dependent diabetes. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) increases good cholesterol (HDL) and lowers bad cholesterol (LDL). Niacin may enhance the effectiveness of some medications prescribed to lower cholesterol (check with a medical professional prior to combining Niacin with prescription medication).
Vitamin B3 plays an important role in ridding the body of toxic and harmful chemicals. It also helps the body make various sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands and other parts of the body. Niacin is effective in improving circulation and reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. Niacin needs can be partially met by eating foods containing protein because the human body is able to convert tryptophan, an amino acid, into niacin.
Dietary deficiency of niacin tends to only occur in areas of the world where people eat corn as a staple and don't use lime in fertilization. Corn is the only grain that is low in niacin. Lime releases tryptophan which, again, can be converted to niacin in the body. Symptoms of mild deficiency include indigestion, fatigue, canker sores, vomiting, and depression. Severe deficiency of both niacin and tryptophan can cause a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra is characterized by cracked, scaly skin, dementia, and diarrhea. It is generally treated with a nutritionally balanced diet and niacin supplements. Niacin deficiency also results in burning in the mouth and a swollen, bright red tongue In the United States alcoholism is the prime cause of Vitamin B3 deficiency.
Nicotinic Acid (Vitamin B3)
Nicotinic acid is a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamins are compounds that you must have for growth and health. They are needed in small amounts only and are usually available in the foods that you eat. Niacin and niacinamide are necessary for many normal functions of the body, including normal tissue metabolism. Nicotinic Acid is water soluble. This is quite important because it may be lost when you cook your food by boiling it in water! It is also important because it cannot be stored in the body and must therefore be present in your diet to replace that which is lost in urine. Don't worry about remembering the chemical structure for your "A" Level exams. It is more important for you to understand why a deficiency of this chemical causes pellagra. Deficiency of nicotinic acid (also known as niacin), one of the B-complex vitamins, causes pellagra.
Pellagra was known as the "disease of the four D's" - dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death. The disease is specifically characterized by:
Dermatitis: A rash on areas of the skin exposed to light or trauma and ulcerations within the mouth
Diarrhea: Fairly easy to recognize - overly loose stool
Dementia: Mental disorientation, confusion, delusions and depression
Death, if untreated.
When used in high doses, nicotinic acid has the following benefits:
It raises HDL levels higher than any other cholesterol drug.
It is extremely effective in reducing triglyceride levels.
It lowers LDL-cholesterol.
It is the least expensive cholesterol drug.
Chemical Name: Pyridine-(beta)-carboxylic Acid; Niacin
Molecular formula: C6H5O2N
Nicotinic acid vitamin B3 research information
Drug Treatments for nicotinic acid
Nicotinic acid Structure, synthesis, interesting facts
Nicotinic acid information from Wikipedia
Nutrition fact sheet: vitamin B3
Novel vitamin discovery offers clues for cancer chemotherapy and lipid disorders
Nicotinamide (Vitamin B3)
Nicotinamide is a form of Vitamin B3 that may preserve and improve beta cell function. Nicotinamide is essential for growth and conversion of foods to energy. It has been used in diabetes treatment and prevention. Potential side effects include headache, skin and GI effects, exacerbation of gout and ulcers, as well as allergies. Liver and platelet function should be monitored. It may increase serum concentrations of the anticonvulsants, carbamazepine and primidone. Nicotinamide (niacinamide) is one of the two principal forms of the B-complex vitamin niacin (see Niacin). The term niacin is used as a collective term to refer to both nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, the other principal form of niacin, or the term is used synonymously with nicotinic acid. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid have identical vitamin activities, but they have very different pharmacological activities.
Nicotinamide, via its major metabolite NAD++ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including the production of energy, the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and steroids, signal transduction and the maintenance of the integrity of the genome. Nicotinic acid, in pharmacological doses, is used as an antihyperlipidemic agent. It also causes vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels resulting in the so-called niacin flush. Nicotinamide in pharmacological doses does not have antihyperlipidemic activity, nor does it cause a niacin-flush. There is evidence, however, that pharmacological doses of nicotinamide may prevent type 1 diabetes mellitus. And, interestingly, pyrazinamide, an important drug in the treatment of tuberculosis, is an analogue of and shares the same biochemical mechanism with nicotinamide.
Nicotinamide, in addition to being known as niacinamide, is also known as 3-pyridinecarboxamide, pyridine-3-carboxamide, nicotinic acid amide, vitamin B3 and vitamin PP. Nicotinamide may have anti-diabetogenic activity in some. It may also have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. Nicotinamide has putatitive activity against osteoarthritis and granuloma annulare.
Chemical Name: Pyridine-3-Carboxyamide
Molecular formula: C6H6N2O