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Carcinogens

carcinogens

This list includes three categories of substances and processes regarded as carcinogenic, primarily by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation (IARC), and to a lesser extent, the US Government's Annual Report on Carcinogens from the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Although there are some difference in categorisation, for convenience we have combined the lists under a common nomenclature. There are some minor omissions and exclusions of exotic materials. Please notify us of any errors or omissions considered important.

  • Category 1 is for substances for which there is sufficient evidence for a causal relationship with cancer in humans (confirmed human carcinogen).
  • Category 2A is for substances for which there is a lesser degree of evidence in humans but sufficient evidence in animal studies, or degrees of evidence considered appropriate to this category, e.g. unequivocal evidence of mutagenicity in mammalian cells (probable human carcinogen).
  • Category 2B is for substances for which there is sufficient evidence in animal tests, or degrees of evidence considered appropriate to this category (possible human carcinogen).
  • Excluded from the list above are IARC category 3 carcinogens for which assessment evidence is 'limited'.
  • All IARC monographs up to issue 60, 1994 and the NTP Sixth Report on Carcinogens are included; (and will update both sources soon).
  • There is more information in the original IARC and NTP documents, including a more detailed description of categories and carcinogenicity evidence.

Note: This is just a list of chemical that have been linked to cancer. Issues of exposure and dosage need to be also considered.

Category 1:

  • Aflatoxins
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Aluminium production
  • 4-aminobiphenyl
  • Arsenic and arsenic compounds
  • Asbestos
  • Manufacture of auramine
  • Azathioprine
  • Benzene
  • Benzidine
  • Beryllium and compounds (upgraded from 2A)
  • Betel quid with tobacco
  • Bis(chloromethyl)ether and chloromethyl methyl ether (technical grade)
  • Boot and shoe manufacture and repair (occupational exposure)
  • 1,4 Butanediol dimethanesulphonate (Myleran)
  • Cadmium and compounds (upgraded from 2A)
  • Chlorambucil
  • Chlornaphazine
  • 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1 nitrosourea
  • Chloromethyl methyl ether (technical)
  • Chromium compounds (hexavalent)
  • Coal gasification
  • Coal tar pitches
  • Coal tars
  • Coke production
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cyclosporin
  • Erionite
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Furniture and cabinet making
  • Underground haematite mining with exposure to radon
  • Iron and steel founding
  • Isopropyl alcohol manufacture (strong acid process)
  • Manufacture of magenta (see also magenta, 2B)
  • Melphalan
  • 8-Methoxypsoralen (Methoxsalen) plus ultraviolet radiation
  • Mineral oils_untreated and mildly-treated oils
  • MOPP and other combined chemotherapy for cancer
  • Mustard gas (sulphur mustard)
  • 2-Naphthylamine
  • Nickel and nickel compounds (essentially sulphate and sulphide)
  • Nonsteroidal oestrogens (not necessarily all in group); includes
  • diethylstilboestrol
  • Oestrogen replacement therapy and
  • Combined oral contraceptives and sequential oral contraceptives
  • Steroidal oestrogens (not all in group)
  • Painter (occupational exposure as a painter)
  • Phenacetin (analgesic mixtures containing)
  • Rubber industry
  • Salted fish, Chinese style
  • Solar radiation
  • Shale oils
  • Soots
  • Sulphuric acid (occupational exposures to strong-inorganic-acid mists of
  • sulphuric acid)
  • Talc containing asbestiform fibres
  • Thiotepa
  • Tobacco products (smokeless)
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Treosulphan
  • Vinyl chloride

Category 2A:

  • Acrylamide
  • Acrylonitrile
  • Adriamycin
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Azacitidine
  • Benzanthracene
  • Benzidine-based dyes (technical grade)
  • a-Butyrolactone
  • Caffeic acid
  • Carbon black extract
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Carrageenan (degraded)
  • Ceramic fibres
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlordane
  • Chlordecone
  • Chlorendic acid
  • Chlorinated paraffins of average carbon-chain length C12 and average
  • degree of chlorination approx 60%
  • alpha-Chlorinated toluenes (not necessarily all in group)
  • Benzotrichloride
  • para-Chloroaniline
  • Chloroform
  • Chlorophenols
  • Pentachlorophenol
  • 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
  • Chlorophenoxy herbicides (not necessarily all in group)
  • 4-Chloro-ortho-phenylenediamine
  • CI Acid Red 114
  • CI Basic Red 9
  • CI Direct Blue 15
  • Citrus Red No.2
  • Cobalt and cobalt compounds
  • Coffee (bladder)
  • para-Cresidine
  • Cycasin
  • Dacarbazine
  • Dantron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone)
  • Daunomycin
  • DDT
  • N,N'-Diacetylbenzidine
  • 4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl ether
  • 2,4-Diaminotoluene
  • Dibenz[a,h]acridine
  • Dibenz[a,j]acridine
  • 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole
  • Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[ai]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
  • 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
  • para-Dichlorobenzene
  • 3,3'-Dichlorobenzene
  • 3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether
  • 1,2-Dichloroethane
  • Dichloromethane
  • 1,3-Dichloropropene (technical grade)
  • Dichlorvos
  • Diepoxybutane
  • Diesel fuel (marine)
  • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
  • 1,2-Diethylhydrazine
  • Diglycidyl resorcinol ether
  • Dihydrosafrole
  • Diisopropyl sulfate
  • 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine
  • para-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
  • trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)methylimino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-
  • furyl[vinyl]-1,3,4-oxidiazole
  • 2,6-Dimethylaniline (2,6-Xylidene)
  • 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (ortho-tolidine)
  • Dimethylformamide
  • 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
  • 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
  • 1,6-Dinitropyrene
  • 1,8-Dinitropyrene
  • 1,4-Dioxane
  • Disperse Blue 1
  • Ethyl acrylate
  • Ethylene thiourea
  • Ethyl methanesulphonate
  • 2-(2-Formylhydrazino)-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole
  • Fuel oils (residual, heavy)
  • Fusarium moniliforme (toxins derived from)
  • Fumonisin B1; Fumonisin B2; Fusarin C
  • Gasoline
  • Gasoline engine exhausts
  • Glasswool
  • Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3'2'-d]imidazole)
  • Glu-P-2(-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3'2'-d]imidazole)
  • Glycidaldehyde
  • Griseofulvin
  • HC Blue No 1
  • Heptachlor
  • Hexachlorobenzene
  • Hexachlorocyclohexanes
  • Technical grades
  • alpha isomer
  • gamma isomer (lindane)
  • Hexamethylphosphoramide
  • Hydrazine
  • Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
  • Iron-dextran complex
  • Isoprene
  • Lasiocarpine
  • Lead and lead compounds (inorganic)
  • Magenta (containing CI Basic Red 9)
  • Man-made mineral fibres (see glasswool, rockwool, slagwool, and ceramic fibres)
  • MeA-a-C (2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole)
  • MeIQ (2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone)
  • MeIQx (2-Amino-3,8-dimethylamidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline)
  • Methylmercury compounds (methylmercuric chloride)
  • Merphalan
  • 2-Methylaziridine
  • Methylazoxymethanol and its acetate
  • 5-Methylchrysene
  • 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-methylaniline)
  • 4,4'-Methylenedianiline
  • Methylmethanesulphonate
  • 2-methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone (uncertain purity)
  • N-methyl-N-nitrosourethane
  • Methylthiouracil
  • Metronidazole
  • Mirex
  • Mitomycin
  • Monocrotaline
  • 5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-oxazolidinone
  • Nafenopin
  • Niridazole
  • 5-Nitroacenaphthene
  • 6-Nitrochrysene
  • Nitrofen (technical grade)
  • 2-Nitrofluorene
  • 1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-imidazolidinone
  • N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]acetamide
  • Nitrogen mustard N-oxide
  • Nitrolotriacetic acid and its salts
  • 2-Nitropropane
  • 1-Nitropyrene
  • 4-Nitropyrene
  • N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine
  • N-Nitrosodiethanolamine
  • N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine
  • 3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile
  • 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)
  • N-Nitrosomethylethylamine
  • N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine
  • N-Nitrosomorpholine
  • N-Nitrosonornicotine
  • N-Nitrosopiperidene
  • N-Nitrosopyrrolidine
  • N-Nitrososarcosine
  • Ochratoxin A
  • Oil Orange
  • Panfuran S (containing dihydroxymethylfuratzine)
  • Phenazopyridine hydrochloride
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
  • Phenyl glycidyl ether
  • Phenytoin
  • PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine
  • Pickled vegetables, traditional Asian
  • Polybrominated biphenyls
  • Ponceau MX
  • Ponceau 3R
  • Potassium bromate
  • 1,3-Propane sultone
  • Propylene oxide (downgraded from 2A)
  • Progestins
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate
  • Propiolactone
  • Propylthiouracil
  • Rockwool
  • Saccharin
  • Safrole
  • Slagwool
  • Sodium ortho-phenylphenate
  • Sterigmatocystin
  • Streptozotocin
  • Styrene
  • Sulfallate
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD)
  • Tetrachloroethylene
  • Textile manufacturing (occupational exposures)
  • Thiocetamide
  • 4,4-Thiodianiline
  • Thiourea
  • Toluene diisocyanates
  • ortho-Toluidine
  • Toxaphene (polychlorinated camphenes)
  • Trichlormethine (trimustine hydrochloride)
  • Trp-P-1 (3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5-H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)
  • Trp-P-2 (3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)
  • Trypan blue
  • Uracil mustard
  • Urethane
  • 4-Vinylcyclohexene
  • 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide
  • Welding fumes
  • Wood industries
  • Carpentry and joinery

References

  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organisation, Monographs volumes 1-60, 1972-1994 and Supplement 7 1987.
  2. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program, Sixth Annual Report on Carcinogens, 1991.
  3. "The Cure For All Diseases" by Hulda Clark, for more details about sources of those of those toxins.
  4. "Reversing Alzheimer", by Tom Warren.
  5. "Natural Organic Hair and Skin Care" - Includes an A to Z Guide to Natural & Synthetic Chemicals in Cosmetics, published by Organica Press, ISBN 0-939157-00-4.

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