Free form amino acids absorption is best when taken between meals without food and without accompanying minerals.
L-arginine has been shown to promote natural growth hormone (GH) release from the pituitary gland that may minimize age-related decline. L-arginine has also been shown to support the immune system as well as maintain a positive nitrogen balance and reduce protein catabolism. It is required for the body to synthesize nitric oxide, which enables the arterial system to maintain its elasticity. Nitric oxide also helps to produce endothelial relaxation factor, which is needed by the arterial system to expand and contract with each heartbeat. Nitric oxide is produced by all tissues of the body and may support a healthy cardiovascular system.
L-Arginine may help regulate cholesterol levels, and act as a blood thinner by reducing platelet aggregation. It is important agent when dealing with obesity and related diabetes issues. It is important in wound healing, removing excess ammonia from the body, stimulating immune function, and promoting secretion of glucagon, insulin, and growth hormone. Arginine is needed in protein synthesis, which affects cellular replication. Some men experience increase in sperm count when supplementing with arginine. Arginines effect on increasing protein synthesis improves wound healing. Arginine works with ornithine in the synthesis of growth hormone, well known to body builders for increased fat reduction. Whole wheat, rice, nuts, seeds, corn, soy, grapes, cocoa, carob, dairy, meat and poultry, chocolate and fish are food sources of arginine.
Arginine has been used in connection with the following conditions:
- synthesis of Nitric Oxide (NO)
- release of growth hormone.
- stimulation of immune function
- healing of (bone) injuries
- reduction of risk of heart disease
- sexual performance in both men and women
- increase in muscle mass
- reduction in body fat
- improve insulin sensitivity
- decrease of blood pressure
- improving sperm production and motility in male infertility
L-Cystine is the stable, oxidized form of L-Cysteine. Cystine is known as a disulfide amino acid because it consists of two Cysteine segments with their respective sulfur atoms bonded firmly together. The body can convert L-Cysteine to L-Cystine and vice versa, however L-Cysteine is the more bio-active of the two. L-Cystine has a bland taste and can be taken in powder or capsule form. An adequate supply of Vitamins C and B6 should always accompany any Cysteine or Cystine supplementation. Amino acid, antioxidant, and chelating agent. Synthesized from L-Methionine. Protects cells from radiation, free radicals, pollution and is claimed to be a chelator for lead and other toxins. Has high sulfur content. Cysteine is also a part of the reduced glutathione molecule, which plays an important role in the livers detoxification pathways. Glutathione binds and conjugates toxins, promoting their excretion.
L-Cysteine can be obtained from dietary protein or synthesized from the amino acid L-methionine. It is directly depleted by cigarette smoking, the depletion of which may be partially related to the faster aging of skin in smokers. L-Cysteine is a sulfur containing amino acid which, together with glycine & glutamic acid, forms the all-important antioxidant glutathione. L-Cysteine contributes to the formation of protein in our bodies. It plays a role in energy metabolism, both by being able to convert to glucose & be used as fuel, & by playing a part in the synthesis of fatty acids. It acts in the liver to help detoxify carcinogens & other dangerous chemicals. Cysteine is essential for T-cell proliferation & activation in your immune system. Cysteine is a major component of skin, hair, & fingernails. Studies show that cysteine supplementation can increase hair shaft diameter and hair growth density in some cases of hair loss.
The benefits and functions attributed to oral ingestion of L-cysteine include:
- Help with skin health.
- Stop hair loss & aid hair growth.
- Aid wound healing from injuries, burns, or surgery.
- Help protect us from the adverse effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, & other chemicals.
- Support the liver when there are liver disorders.
- Enhance absorption of iron.
- Ameliorate chemical sensitivity reactions.
- Promote the production of red & white blood cells.
- Support cartilage (as a precursor to chondroitin sulfate.)
L-histidine is an essential amino acid that cannot be formed by other nutrients, and must be in the diet to be available to the body. Most often recognized as a precursor to the allergy symptom producing hormone histamine, both histidine and histamine have essential roles in the body beyond tormenting allergy sufferers. Histamine is well known for its role in stimulating the inflammatory response of skin and mucous membranes such as those found in the nose - this action is essential in the protection of these barriers during infection. Histamine also stimulates the secretion of the digestive enzyme gastrin. Without adequate histamine production healthy digestion can become impaired. Without adequate L-histidine stores, the body cannot maintain adequate histamine levels.
Less well known is that L-histidine is required by the body to regulate and utilize essential trace minerals such as copper, zinc, iron, manganese and molybdenum. L-histidine is essential in forming many metal bearing enzymes and compounds, examples being the antioxidant super oxide dismutase, the iron storage protein ferritin, the iron uptake regulation protein -FUR, the copper storage and iron metabolism cofactor cerulplasmin, red blood cell hemoglobin, the toxic metal storage protein metallothionein, and the cysteine regulating enzyme cysteine dioxygenase - to name but a few important enzymes dependent on L-histidine being available for formation and function.
Metals such as zinc, copper and nickel are transported by binding with L-histidine, and such binding appears essential for rapid excretion of excess metal. Toxic metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, and threatening excesses of essential minerals zinc and copper stimulate the rapid formation of metallothionein inside cells of the brain, liver, and kidneys. Metallothionein is a molecule designed to store metals in such a way as to prevent uncontrolled oxidation reactions - protecting the normal workings of the cell. Metallothionein requires both L-cysteine (usually derived from available glutathione stores) and L-histidine to be formed. Persons contaminated with heavy metals, suffering from chronic seasonal allergies, or following a low histidine diet are most susceptible to body depletion of adequate histidine stores - creating the possibility of mineral-enzyme deficiencies and dysregulation.
Depletion of body stores of L-histidine might be best recognized by dysfunction of L-histidine dependent compounds, and low blood plasma concentrations of the amino acid. High blood serum levels of iron have been experimentally caused in humans by a diet low in L-Histidine. Intolerance of sulfur bearing foods like garlic and broccoli along with elevated blood plasma L-cysteine levels indicate inactivation of the L-Histidine and iron dependent enzyme cysteine dioxygenase. L Histidine has been used in the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis, Allergic diseases, Ulcers, Anemia. A deficiency can cause poor hearing.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of Leucine. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels. It metabolizes in muscle tissue. L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, and, L-Valine, three branched chain essential amino acids aid in sustaining muscular strength and stamina. Studies on people with alcoholic cirrhosis have shown a benefit to consuming L-valine, L-leucine, and L-isoleucine. These branched-chain amino acids enhance protein synthesis in liver cells and muscle cells. They are used by body builders to produce an anabolic effect and repair the micro-tears that are the normal result of exercise. These branched-chain amino acids enhance protein synthesis in liver cells, help restore liver function, and prevent chronic encephalopathy. A deficiency of isoleucine can lead to symptoms similar to hypoglycemia. Food sources for isoleucine include almonds, cashews, and soy protein. Isoleucine can enhance energy levels and increase endurance. It is also important in healing and repairing of muscle tissue.
L-Leucine is an essential amino acid and one of the branched-chain amino acids (the others are isoleucine and valine). These work together to protect muscle and act as fuel. Together, they promote the healing of bones, skin, and muscle tissue, and are recommended for those who are recovering from surgery. Leucine also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and aids in increasing growth hormone production. Food sources for leucine includes brown rice, nuts, and whole wheat. Supplemental L-leucine must be taken in balance with L-isoleucine and L-valine; 1 part L-isoleucine to 2 parts each of L-leucine and L-valine.
L-Lysine is one of the eight essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the human body, it is an essential free-form amino acid which acts as a precursor for other amino acids, including L-carnitine (needed for fat metabolism). L-Lysine also contributes to energy production when converted to acetyl coenzyme A, one of the principal fuels for the Krebs cycle. L-Lysine is helpful in the production of antibodies to fight disease and enzymes necessary for tissue repair. L-Lysine is proving effective in helping to reduce the incidence of and or prevent painful cold sores and fever blisters caused by the Herpes Simplex-1 virus.
L-Lysine is crucial for the formation of collagen, a major part of the bodys connective tissues, the fibrous protein which makes up bone, cartilage and supports the outer layer of skin. It supports calcium absorption, may be an important supplement in preventing osteoporosis, and is being researched for use as a treatment for angina. It also helps promote healthy skin; reduce osteoporosis; high blood pressure; acts as a precursor for L-Carnitine which improves stress tolerance & fat metabolism.
L-Lysine may help prevent glycosylation, the combining of a sugar and protein molecule accelerated by elevated levels of sugar in the blood, which causes some signs of aging. Linus Pauling has provided evidence that it may also help prevent coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis by inhibiting the accumulation of apolipoprotein (a) and (b) on arterial walls.
L-Lysine is a necessary building block for all protein in the body. L-Lysine plays a major role in calcium absorption; building muscle protein; recovering from surgery or sports injuries; and the body's production of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.
Brewers yeast, legumes, dairy, fish, and meat all contain significant amounts of lysine. Most people, including vegans (vegetarians who also avoid dairy and eggs), consume adequate amounts of lysine. Athletes involved in frequent vigorous exercise have an increased need for essential amino acids.
Lysine supplementation has been shown to increase the absorption of calcium and it may reduce its excretion. Some researchers believe that lysine may be shown to have a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Lysine works with other essential amino acids to maintain growth, lean body mass, and the bodys store of nitrogen. Vitamin C aids L-Lysine in the formation of collagen. Taking vitamin C with L-lysine may be beneficial.
Methionine is one of the essential sulfur amino acids. As a "methyl donor", methionine contributes to the formation of numerous important compounds in the body. This process, methylation, is implicated in depression. Methionine functions as a sulfur donor to aid in your body's detoxification processes. It can convert to other sulfur amino acids, to glutathione, and is a precursor to S-adenosyl methionine. Sunflower seeds are a good source of methionine. Diets deficient in methionine may result in destructive breakdown and metabolism of protein. Methionine is required for the synthesis of cysteine and carnitine.
Methionine plays a key role in regulating the availability of folic acid. Methionine deficiency makes folic acid unusable and may induce a build up of the unusable folic acid. There is a tendency for allergic (high histamine) persons to be methionine deficient. They may respond favorably to methionine, because it lowers blood histamine levels. It is a good source of sulfur, it is important for the breakdown of fat in liver and arteries. As a digestive aid it helps detoxify harmful agents, aids muscle weakness, prevents brittle hair, is beneficial for allergic chemical sensitivities and osteoporosis.
The benefits and functions attributed to oral ingestion of L-methionine include:
- Allergies & asthma.
- Helps lower copper with copper toxicity.
- Beneficial against the toxic effects of radiation.
- Improves healing from surgery & other wounds.
- Useful for the high histamine type of schizophrenia - is most useful in those schizophrenics who are depressed.
- Liver disorders.
- Withdrawal symptoms and depression from heroin, barbiturate, or amphetamine reduction.
- As an adjunct to L-dopa treatment for Parkinson's disease.
- Antioxidant therapy.
L-phenylalanine is an essential amino acid which can be converted to L-tyrosine by a complex biochemical process which takes place in the liver. L-tyrosine can be converted by neurons in the brain to dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), hormones which are depleted by stress, overwork and certain drugs. By replenishing norepinephrine in the brain, mental energy levels are enhanced, some forms of depression are alleviated, and a feeling of contentment often occurs. Because of the liver conversion necessary for L-phenylalanine to have these effects, L-tyrosine is often faster acting. In addition, the conversion step from L-tyrosine to norepinephrine may be enhanced if the cofactors (vitamins B6 and C) are included.
Some of the norepinephrine will also be converted to epinephrine (adrenaline) in the brains adrenal medulla by use of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) as a methylating agent. Since both norepinephrine and epinephrine can cause smooth muscle (arterial) contraction, care with blood pressure should be taken when supplementing L-phenylalanine or L-tyrosine. L-tyrosine is a precursor of two thyroid hormones.
Adequate cofactors (vitamins B6 and C) should also be taken. L-phenylalanine is used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, and antidepressant. Phenylalanine is used by the brain to produce norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter depleted by stress, caffeine, nicotine, pollution, and some pharmacological and recreational drugs. Phenylalanine also helps replace dopamine, the neurotransmitter responsible for feelings associated with sexual pleasure, confidence, and euphoria.
Phenylalanine is the precursor to another amino acid called tyrosine. Tyrosine also does all of the above except for one factor. Eating chocolate causes the release of beta phenylethylamine, a neuromodulator associated with mood enhancement and sexual stimulation. Tyrosine does not appear to be as active in this role as chocolate and phenylalanine. This is the reason chocolate is referred to as a sex food. If you are a chocoholic and want to cut back, phenylalanine may be the answer for you.
Phenylalanine or tyrosine work especially well with caffeine. Caffeine gives us a temporary lift by sending norepinephrine (neurotransmitter associated with mental sharpness, excitability, pain reduction, and depression relief) into the blood stream. Over time, healthy levels of norepinephrine are depleted by caffeine and other factors mentioned above if not replaced. Phenylalanine or tyrosine does a great job replacing it.
Studies have shown that cocaine or "crack heads" may also find benefit from its use. The consistent use of cocaine eventually depletes dopamine and norepinephrine from the brain without replacing them. This is why so many habitual users become depressed, lethargic, and lose their drive to compete and/or have sex. Cocaine works great for awhile until the abuser uses up his/her dopamine and norepinephrine stores and then they "crash."
Have you ever wondered why smokers have to light-one-up immediately after sex? Smoking appears to release dopamine into the brain so they get a double shot of it by having an orgasm and lighting up afterward. This may be one of the main reasons "kicking the habit" is so difficult. Cigarette smokers may find it quite easy to become ex-smokers with the use of phenylalanine. Many ex-smokers gain weight right after quitting and use weight gain as a reason to keep smoking. Phenylalanine also encourages the hypothalamus in the brain to release CCK (cholecystokinin), the hormone responsible for signalling fullness. Using phenylalanine may eliminate ex-smokers weight gain excuse.
Phenylalanine should not be confused with phenylpropanolamine (a form of amphetamine). Phenylpropanolamine is an appetite depressant used in several over-the-counter diet pills. It causes the brain to use up its stores of norepinephrine without stimulating it to produce more. After about two weeks, the dieter stops taking the diet pill and depression sets in because they are running low on norepinephrine. They then gorge themselves on food and end up gaining more weight than before.
L-Threonine is an amino acid typically found in the heart, skeletal muscle and the nervous system. Do not confuse it with L-Theanine from green tea, a different substance. It is important in the formation of collagen, elastin and tooth enamel. In combination with L-Aspartic Acid and L-Methionine it supports liver function through its lipotropic action (removes fats.) It also helps control seizures. L-Threonine is a precursor (building block) of glycine synthesis in the spinal cord and is essential to a healthy nervous system. L-Threonine helps maintain the proper protein balance in the body. Because threonine content of grains is low, vegetarians are more likely than others to have deficiencies, and are advised to take supplemental L-Threonine. L-Threonine enhances the immune system by aiding the production of antibodies.
L-Tyrosine is a direct precursor to Thyroxine, a primary thyroid hormone, as well as Adrenaline and Nor-adrenaline. Thyroxine has been found to increase metabolic rate and control growth rate. L-Tyrosine is a necessary amino acid in the production of neurotransmitters including epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. L-Tyrosine also appears to have a mild stimulatory effect on the central nervous system.
People with Thyroxine deficiency have symptoms including excess weight gain, cold hands and feet, and decreased basal metabolism. L-Tyrosine has been found to assist in optimizing thyroid hormone levels, increased mood, concentration, and productivity. L-Tyrosine is used to treat conditions including depression or mood disorder, poor coping ability, fatigue, low sex drive, low metabolism, and drug abuse (when combined with Tryptophan). It can also improve endurance under stress and is effective as an appetite suppressant. When taken properly, L-Tyrosine can assist a sluggish thyroid and aid the dieter in losing excess, unwanted pounds.
L-tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid (protein building block) that the body synthesizes from phenylalanine, another amino acid. Tyrosine is important to the structure of almost all proteins in the body. It is also the precursor of several neurotransmitters, including L-dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. L-tyrosine, through its effect on neurotransmitters, may affect several health conditions, including Parkinsons disease, depression, and other mood disorders. Studies have suggested that tyrosine may help people with depression. Preliminary findings indicate a beneficial effect of tyrosine, along with other amino acids, in people affected by dementia, including Alzheimers disease. Due to its role as a precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine (two of the bodys main stress-related hormones) tyrosine may also ease the adverse effects of environmental, psychosocial, and physical stress.
L-tyrosine is converted by skin cells into melanin, the dark pigment that protects against the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Thyroid hormones, which have a role in almost every process in the body, also contain tyrosine as part of their structure. People born with the genetic condition phenylketonuria (PKU) are unable to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine. Mental retardation and other severe disabilities can result. While dietary phenylalanine restriction prevents these problems, it also leads to low tyrosine levels in many (but not all) people with PKU. Tyrosine supplementation may be beneficial in some people with PKU, though the evidence is conflicting. L-Tyrosine is found in dairy products, meats, fish, wheat, oats, and most other protein-containing foods.
L-Valine is an essential amino acid that has a stimulating effect. It is needed for muscle metabolism, tissue repair, and for the maintenance of proper nitrogen balance in the body. Valine is found in high concentration in the muscle tissue. It is also one of the three branched-chain amino acids, which means that it can be used as an energy source by muscle tissue. Dietary sources of valine include dairy products, grain, meat, mushrooms, peanuts, and soy proteins. L-Valine may be helpful in treating liver and gallbladder disorders, and it is good for correcting the type of server amino acid deficiencies that can be caused by drug addiction.
Creatine is a natural substance found in the human body, about 120 grams per person. Creatine plays a very powerful role in energy metabolism. Creatine is a nutrient that our bodies produce naturally from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine. The whole idea behind taking creatine as supplement is that during physical activity you burn up a lot of creatine. If you take creatine monohydrate you will have more energy - because the energy cycle can go on for a longer time. Your muscle's creatine supply is not limitless. The average human has between 3.5 and 4 grams of creatine per kilogram of muscle. Once you use up the creatine in your muscle you have to rest your muscles and wait before you can exercise again. Human muscle can store up to 5 grams of creatine per kilogram. So, by taking a creatine supplement you can raise your creatine levels from 3.5 to 5 grams of creatine per kilogram, this will extend the period you can exercise before having to take a rest and fatigue build up.
Creatine will not help you lose fat directly, it will help you tone and firm. In the long run, it's the building of muscle that causes an increase in your metabolism and helps burn calories and fat. Creatine as a dietary supplement is used primarily to help enhance muscle growth and improve high intensity, athletic performance. When creatine supplements are used by athletes they help increase muscle size and strength, enhance the amount of energy released during exercise and speed muscle recovery following exertion. Creatine therefore makes for more efficient and effective workouts. Excess creatine is converted into the waste product creatinine and excreted from the body.
Creatine is an amino acid derivative formed from amino acids in the liver, kidneys and pancreas. Red meat is one of nature's best sources of creatine, but in order to get four grams of creatine from solid food, you would have to eat nearly five pounds of beef. One heaped teaspoon provides about as much creatine as 1 kilogram of fresh uncooked meat. There are three forms of creatine on the market, phosphate, citrate, and monohydrate. Is is thought by some that the phosphate variety is not easily absorbed by the body and will therefore not be as effective. The citrate variety seemed to be catching on, but research is sketchy. Nearly all the positive clinical studies that have been done on creatine have utilized the monohydrate form.
MSM Methyl Sulfonyl Methane
MSM or Methylsulfonylmethane, is a stable odorless metabolite of DMSO, di-methylsulfoxide. While MSM is mostly identified with joint health, a published studies show that MSM supports normal immune and respiratory function. MSM is a natural substance. Claims have been made that MSM relieves pain, inflammation and allergies. MSM has gained considerable recognition for its claims and results in relieving arthritis. MSM has been used for the relief of pain, head trauma, interstitial cystitis, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease. MSM is nontoxic! Clinical evidence shows that MSM speeds healing of musculoskeletal injuries and inflammations. MSM serves as a natural remedy to relieve the pain, inflammation and many symptoms of illness.
If you define natural as a substance that occurs naturally in the body and in plants, then by that definition, MSM is natural. The raw material used to produce MSM is of natural origin. MSM is a member of the sulfur family not to be confused with sulfa drugs, to which some people are allergic. MSM is non-allergenic and does not interfere with any other pharmaceutical medicines or supplements. MSM is also called organic sulfur. MSM as a sulfur compound is a nutrient found in the human diet and the natural diets of virtually all other vertebrates. MSM is part of the amino acid chain and without the proper amount of MSM in our bodies, the amino acids will continue to build the glands, but fail to produce the correct enzymes, making us prone to unnecessary illness.
MSM sulfur belongs in the same chemical family as oxygen, and in oxygen depleted environments, sulfur often replaces oxygen as the source of chemical energy upon which life thrives. MSM sulfur is a dietary supplement that does not require a doctor's prescription. Because there are few nerves in the bones, our pain comes from the soft tissue. Aspirin shuts off the nerves, but the muscles are still damaged. MSM apparently suppresses the inflammation, permits the muscles to heal and prevents them from becoming sore.
MSM can help reduce scar tissue by altering the cross linking process in collagen and allow tissue repair and healing to take place. MSM helps to detoxify the body. Symptoms associated with detoxification, such as diarrhea, skin rash and or possible headache along with several days of fatigue are possible side effects. Arthritis pain is often caused by an accumulation of toxic build-up in the joints, muscles and fluids. Inflammation of joints is often also caused by toxic build-ups in those same areas.
MSM supplements do not cure arthritis. They reduce the swelling that causes pain. We need MSM supplements to get rid of pain! MSM is so effective that doctors are able to reduce their patients' medication dosage. Some can even discontinue their medications in place of MSM sulfur. Proper acid - alkaline balance of the body cannot be maintained without sulfur. Sulfur is vital to the creation and regeneration of the body's tissues. Sulfur is an indispensable component in human nutrition. It is found in every cell in the body. Sulfur itself is held mainly in the muscles, skin, bones, nails and hair.
Medical authorities have continually cautioned physicians and patients regarding the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pain relievers known as NSAIDs. These pain relievers such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, etc. are believed responsible for more than 76,000 hospitalizations each year due to gastrointestinal bleeding. An estimated 41,000 hospitalizations and 3,300 deaths involving the elderly are attributed annually to NSAIDs.
If you are going to have surgery it is recommended to stop taking MSM 4 days prior to surgery. For more information read The Miracle of MSM (The Natural Solution for Pain) by Jacob, Lawrence and Zucker. Dr. Stanley W. Jacob, the world's foremost expert on the clinical use of MSM, has reported anti-flammatory effects of MSM since 1979. Dr. Stanley W. Jacob, "Humanitarian of the Year" awarded by the American Health Federation in 1983 for his ground breaking contributions to medical research. Top of his field, a highly acclaimed doctor and researcher, Jacob is considered to be the world's leading technical authority on the use of sulfur compounds for the treatment of disease.
as Krebs complex of citrate, fumarate, malate, glutarate and succinate.
Molybdenum functions mainly as an enzyme cofactor. Three molybdoenzymes catalyze hydroxylation of various substrates.
- Aldehyde oxidase oxidizes and detoxifies various pyrimidines, purines, pteridines, and related compounds.
- Xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase catalyzes transformation of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine to uric acid.
- Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the transformation of sulfite to sulfate. (Sulfite oxidase deficiency deranges cysteine metabolism).
- an essential trace element in humans and is required for enzyme activity as a cofactor.
- a transition element that can exist in multiple oxidation states and facilitate electron transfer in oxidation-reduction reactions.
- is readily absorbed in foods and as soluble complexes
- is inhibited by copper
Molybdenum is a trace mineral (0.1 to 1.0 mcg per gram of wet weight). Liver, kidney, adrenal glands and bone contain the highest amounts of molybdenum. After absorption, molybdenum is rapidly excreted through the kidney (90%) and smaller amounts are excreted in bile (10%). Besides the molybdenum cofactor, molybdate ion (MoO42) is the form most commonly found in blood and urine.
People allergic to sulfites used as preservatives in salad bars, wine, and dried fruit may be helped by trace molybdenum. Molybdenum functions as a component in several enzymes including those involved in alcohol detoxification, uric acid formation, and sulfur metabolism. Molybdenum supplementation brought about complete resolution of symptoms of sulfite toxicity such as increased heart rate, shortness of breath, headache, disorientation, nausea, and vomiting. Since this study, a molybdenum deficiency has been suggested as a cause for sulfite sensitivities.
Gelatin, Vegetable Stearate, Silica
There are four principal forms of delivery in nutritional products: Tablets, Capsules/Caplets, Liquid and Powder.
Active ingredients listed on the label largely influence the consumers choice, yet the inactive ingredients greatly influence the quality and effectiveness of the product. We avoid adding sucrose, starch, artificial flavors, preservatives, undisclosed additives, or coal tar derivatives, in the smallest possible amounts.
Capsules - are made from gelatin naturally occurring in complete protein.
Filler - An inert substance used to "fillout" the tablet or capsule to a size and shape that can easily be processed and swallowed. We use cellulose derived from pure natural plant fibers.
Lubricant - an ingredient which permits the compressed tablet to be properly ejected from the machine. We use magnesium stearate - a magnesium derivative of natural vegetable oil and magnesium silicate, a naturally occurring mineral.
Glidant - an ingredient which is used to facilitate the flow of the powders in the encapsulation process. We use natural purified mineral derived from hydrated silica.
Most capsules are made from gelatin. We use vegi-caps, made from vegetable sources. Gelatin is widely used in many food products such as puddings, desserts, marshmallows, chewable candies, glazes, whipped toppings, and dips. One popular consumer product is Jell-O brand gelatin. In food applications, gelatin's ability to gel, thicken, stabilize, and aerate make it a highly desirable, nutritive, fat-free component. Gelatin also finds it's way into many households in the form of cosmetics and toiletries, which utilize gelatin for it's hypo-allergenic and hydrating properties. Gelatin itself is a mixture of water-soluble proteins derived primarily from collagen, which is the main naturally-occurring protein constituent of connective tissue. Capsules are made from pharmaceutical grade gelatin that has met the stringent requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia and other international organizations that set standards for products that are used in medicines.