Vitamin B Explained

B Vitamins are in the group of water-soluble vitamins. Excess vitamins are not stored in the body, but eliminated easily. Our bodies require a consistent intake of water-soluble vitamins to function.

Unfortunately due to industrial agriculture the nutrient levels in our soils are very low at best. If you are growing all your own organic food, using proper compost and fertilizer and picking it when its ripe, and you don’t have a compromised digestive system you may get enough nutrients. Lets be honest though, most of us are not in that category.

When severe deficiencies exist, simply eating more of the food that is deficient in nutrients will not help you. You will need to supplement.

B Vitamins

B Vitamins are often referred to as “the energy vitamins”. They are a family of vitamins that are important for numerous functions in the body. These vitamins are crucial if you are experiencing prolonged stress. Your adrenal glands rely on ample B Vitamins to help you cope with stress.

B Vitamins are depleted much faster if you:

  • Are stressed
  • Smoke
  • Eat the Standard American Diet (SAD)
  • Drink alcohol
  • Do drugs
  • Have nerve issues like neuropathy
  • Been sick or recently recovered from an illness.

Taking just one type of B vitamin at a time is not something you should do for a long period of time. Vitamins work together. Unless you have instructions from a Functional Medicine Doctor or Naturopath to take just one B Vitamin, stick with a complex. If you want to add more of one vitamin to your complex you can do that as well until your health issue is resolved.  A good example of this is adding extra B12 if you have low levels in your body. Another example is extra B5 for adrenal issues or B1 for helping to restore nerve function.

Forms And Dosage

B Vitamins come in their standard form and also have a biologically active form. The biologically active form of the vitamin is good for people who have impaired absorption and digestive issues. It more easily penetrates the cell membranes. Absorption of the biologically active form increases 5 fold.

With B Vitamins, more is not always better. An example of this is taking high levels of Niacin. If you do this it can cause blurred vision, nausea and vomiting. Stick with the dosage on the bottle or the recommendation from a health practitioner or someone properly trained in the use of vitamins and supplements.

B1 – Thiamine

The active form is called Benfotiamine.

Thiamin helps with metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fat. It helps promote healthy nerve function and healthy aging. It is also responsible for proper nervous system and muscle function and the synthesis of DNA.

Specifically, the form Benfotiamine is very important to prevent the destructive process known as glycation. When your body is exposed to high blood sugar for long periods of time, this causes glycation. Benfotiamine blocks that process. Glycation can cause diabetic nerve damage in extremities and damage to your blood vessels and eyes.

High-sugar diets can also cause negative effects in the body. It produces accelerated aging of your cells and nerve damage. Thiamin can help combat this although you should still eliminate refined and artificial sweeteners.

Thiamin is also important for restoring the function of damaged nerves.  25mg 4x daily for 3 months can bring much healing and relief to damaged nerves. If you can’t find 25mg dosage, 50mg 2x daily can be taken.

Thiamine is in fact a co-enzyme (a substance that enhances the action of an enzyme) that helps our cells to produce the energy we need for basically every function, from breathing and blinking, to walking, running, and metabolizing food. Not having enough thiamine in the body basically results in low overall energy. Chronically low levels of thiamine lead to fatigue, brain fog, poor sleep, numbness, and loss of appetite. Without enough B1, you might also experience weak immunity, and as a result of this, you may be affected by colds and flus more frequently.

Thiamine deficiency can lead to a serious condition called beriberi, which affects the cardiovascular system (wet beriberi) and nervous system (dry beriberi). A lack of thiamine in our diet is also connected with diabetes and poor glucose tolerance. Excessive alcohol consumption impairs thiamine absorption, and consequently alcoholics tend to be highly deficient in this vitamin and often need to supplement. Proper absorption of Thiamine requires enough of vitamins B6, B12, and folate, so it is important to adjust your diet to get an adequate variety of nutrients.

One of the best sources of thiamine is pork meat. One hundred grams of pork covers your daily needs for thiamine (which is around 1.3 mg per day, and a little more for pregnant and breastfeeding women). It is also present in other lean cuts of meat, like beef or tuna. Sunflower seeds, sesame seeds (and tahini), spinach, cauliflower, and asparagus are good vegetarian sources of B1. The nutrients in garlic and onions help your body to absorb thiamine properly, so add them to your meals to add a boost of flavor and a dose of sulfur (unless you are sensitive to FODMAP foods). Thiamine is safe even in high doses; up to 300 mg per day has been used to improve fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis or IBS.

B2 – Riboflavin

The active form is Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

Riboflavin helps your body convert protein, carbs and fats from food into energy. It helps with eye health, skin health and is necessary for normal cell growth and function.

You may be more susceptible to loss of B2 if you have a poor diet, have endocrine disorders, liver issues or chronic diarrhea. Oral contraceptives decrease the absorption of B2 and supplementation with a complex is advisable.

Riboflavin works as an activator, helping other B vitamins to work, and it is very important for the metabolism of carbohydrates and the development of our connective tissues, including skin and hair sheaths (the inner coatings of hair follicles in the outer layer of our skin). Riboflavin also aids in the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to niacin (Vitamin B3). Some patients with MTHFR mutations have an increased need for riboflavin. Vitamin B2 also helps with the absorption of iron, zinc, and folate (Vitamin B9) and helps to prevent anemia, migraines, rosacea, and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include cracked lips, dry skin (especially around the nose and mouth), sore throat, swollen tongue, anemia, sensitivity to light, and preeclampsia in pregnant women. If you are exercising a lot (heavy lifters in particular), you might need up to 10 times more riboflavin in your diet than the generally recommended amount. Around 1.7 mg per day is a good starting range, and there is no reported upper limit for Vitamin B2. Excess riboflavin is excreted via urine, turning it yellow.

The best sources of B2 are grass-fed liver (beef, lamb, or even poultry). Making a liver paté or sautéing some liver with onions and sliced bell peppers is a delicious and healthy idea. The liver is jam packed with nutrients, and just 100 grams will provide you with over 250% of your daily need. Other great sources are eggs, pastured dairy (if you can tolerate it), nuts, and green vegetables. Riboflavin is pretty stable when heated, so you can cook your meals without fear of losing those precious nutrients. Just keep in mind that if you boil riboflavin rich foods, these vitamins stay in the water you used, so go ahead and use that water to make soup or broth.

B3 – Niacin, Niacinamide

The active form is Inositol Hexaniconicotinate.

Niacin’s role involves converting protein, carbs and fat from food into energy. It helps your body with the synthesis of fatty acids, helps improve cholesterol issues and assists in regulating metabolic processes.  This B vitamin helps your body to repair damaged DNA.

Deficiencies of niacin can cause a disease known to show symptoms which involve dermatitis, insomnia, diarrhea, weakness, cognitive decline and death.

Niacin can cause uncomfortable flushing known as a “niacin flush”. It is completely harmless, but can have an uncomfortable sensation of warming and itching of the skin. Some companies use a sustained release niacin known as Niacinamide which doesn’t cause the flushing effect. Unfortunately there is a potential side-effect of liver damage, which of course is much worse than an uncomfortable “flush”.

Inositol hexanicotinate is a much better alternative if you cannot tolerate the niacin flush.

Niacin is another energy generating nutrient, particularly important for converting glucose into usable energy. Niacin is also responsible for healthy digestive function, detoxification, and hormone creation. Ensuring that you are getting enough Vitamin B3 helps to reduce the chance of developing one of many autoimmune or inflammatory conditions – they include gout, headaches, IBD, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, and diabetes. In 2004, researchers found that elderly patients who consumed the most niacin in their diet were 70% less likely to have Alzheimer’s disease compared to those who consumed the least.

A lack of niacin can cause digestive problems, skin infections, muscle weakness, and elevated blood lipids. Alcohol consumption can cause a deficiency in niacin, as can chronic stress and physical trauma. Chronic niacin deficiency causes pellagra, a fatal disease with symptoms like mental confusion, dementia, nerve damage, or diarrhea. This disease occurs mostly in areas like Africa, Indonesia, or China, and often develops in alcoholics, and people living in poverty or homelessness. Our body can manufacture niacin when needed, using tryptophan, one of the important amino acids present primarily in animal foods, but just as with beta-carotene and Vitamin A conversion, this production is not very efficient and can be energy demanding. Consuming niacin directly from our food is always a better option.

Tuna is the best source of niacin, followed by beef liver, pork meat, poultry, and pastured full-fat dairy. Vegetarian sources include mushrooms, nuts and seeds, and sweet potatoes. Niacin is very stable, and not greatly affected by light, heat, or air, so don’t worry about losing this vitamin during prolonged cooking. A safe dose of Vitamin B3 is around 15 mg per day – more is still safe, but can cause facial flushing that is temporary and not dangerous. In the past, niacin supplements included sustained release forms of niacin that eliminated the flushing but caused dangerous liver damage.

Vitamin B4 (Choline)

In the past, choline was considered a part of the Vitamin B family, but today you will most likely only find it as a standalone nutrient. Choline is extremely important for liver and brain health. It is a precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in the function of our memory. Our liver uses choline to process fats. Choline also impacts our levels of LDL cholesterol, and getting enough choline can help to prevent fatty liver. It was proven that choline deficiency is a major contributor to fatty liver disease.

Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, brain fog, memory issues, and cardiovascular disease are other symptoms of Vitamin B4 deficiency. If you eat a high-fat diet, your choline needs are higher because your liver needs more to process all of the fat (which means you should consume more choline, not less dietary fat). During pregnancy and lactation, the female body can become more choline deficient, as a big part of her intake is used up by the developing fetus or breastfed baby. If you drink a lot of alcohol, your choline needs can also increase. Dr. Chris Masterjohn is a big choline fan and he put together this amazing post that goes into great detail about choline and is worth checking out if you enjoy digging into the hardcore science.

Where do you get your choline from? Liver (we told you liver is a nutrient powerhouse!) and egg yolks. Kidneys and brain are good sources as well, but I understand these might not be your favorite cuts of meat (they are not mine for sure). One pastured egg yolk contains around 120 mg of choline, or 100 grams of liver will perfectly cover your daily needs, which is 450 mg for women and 550 mg for men and pregnant or nursing women. Vegetable sources include brussel sprouts, broccoli, and cauliflower, but compared to egg yolks and liver, they contain ten times less choline.

Many people who still fear dietary fat are scared of the fat in egg yolks. While a 100 gram serving of egg yolks contains over 680 mg of choline, the same amount of egg whites only contains a little over 1 mg. And we are not even talking about the other nutrients present in a sunny yellow yolk! The book Eat The Yolks by Liz Wolfe will teach you far more than just egg yolk facts. It is a particularly great resource if you want to recognize the lies we have been literally fed about food for decades, and replace these myths with scientifically backed-up evidence. If you choose to supplement with choline, look for a version that contains phosphatidylcholine, which is the type present in eggs – and also our cell membranes – as it is the most bioavailable form for our bodies to use. Choline is also richly present in Sunflower Lecithin.

B5 – Pantothenic Acid

The active form is Calcium-D-Pantothenate.

Pantothenic Acid helps convert carbohydrates and fat from food into energy. It helps the body produce red blood cells, assists in healthy digestion and the production of hormones. It also plays a role in tissue generation, creating antibodies and promoting healing.

B5 is important for helping the body to produce hormones such as cortisone, and to produce hemoglobin. Your brain also needs B5 to create neurotransmitters. Anecdotal evidence suggests it has helped some people reduce premature graying of hair (if the cause is a deficiency in B5 and not oxidative stress).

Deficiencies can include fatigue, neurological disorders including numbness, “burning feet”, cramping and weakness of the muscles.

For more information on using B5 specifically for Adrenal issues you can read “About Vitamin B5: A Guide to Usage and Dosage” by Dr. Lam.

Pantothenic acid is present in many foods, so deficiencies in B5 are quite rare. But that doesn’t mean that we should overlook the importance of this vitamin. Pantothenic acid supports energy production in the body (using both carbohydrates and fats), it helps with chronic stress related inflammatory problems including chronic fatigue, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, and most importantly, it supports your adrenal glands to help you respond to stress more efficiently. Pantothenic acid also helps to clear the hormonal imbalance that may result in acne  some research even suggests that acne can be a sign of Vitamin B5 deficiency. This nutrient is also used in alcohol metabolism, so if you drink regularly, you might want to increase your Vitamin B5 intake to support your liver.

It is present in all animal and plant based foods (except for pure fats because B5 is water soluble). The best sources are sweet potatoes, avocados, mushrooms, all organ meats, eggs, and pastured dairy. Our gut flora also manufacture pantothenic acid we can later use, but as always, eating real food is a better option, especially if the health of your gut flora is less than excellent. One hundred grams of chicken liver will provide you with 83% of your daily needs. The recommended daily amount is 10 mg, and there is no known upper limit (though more than 2 grams per day can cause mild diarrhea).

Pantothenic acid is pretty unstable, especially when exposed to freezing. Frozen vegetables are a wonderful option out of season, but they are not the most efficient source of Vitamin B5. It’s a good thing that it is present in so many other foods we put on our plate! When supplementing, choose calcium pantothenate, because it is more stable than supplemental pantothenic acid.

B6 -Pyridoxine

The active form is Pyridoxal-5′-Phosphate.

Pyridoxine helps your body metabolize proteins and amino acids. Vitamin B6 helps the body release glucose that has been stores. It assists with hormone production and immune support. B6 also helps the body to produce neurotransmitters, which enhance brain health.

This B Vitamin is necessary for energy production in the body, tissue formation, red blood cells and healthy fat metabolism.

The Liposomal or active form (P5P) is preferred if you have impaired liver function or poor intestinal absorption.

If we had to choose the top three in the Vitamin B family, pyridoxine would be one of these superheroes. Along with B9 and B12, B6 is critical for methylation and immune health. Vitamin B6 is converted into a co-enzyme that is important for the metabolism of amino acids and also for a process called gluconeogenesis (converting amino acids or fatty acids into glucose). The co-enzyme made from pyridoxine is also involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and deficiency in this nutrient has been linked to type 1 diabetes.

Similar to pantothenic acid, pyridoxine is present in many foods. Deficiencies can happen when our nutrient absorption is compromised. Any gut issues, chronic alcoholism, or chronic diarrhea can lead to poor absorption of nutrients, but we already know that gut health is a stepping stone for healing other systems in the body. A lack of pyridoxine in the body is connected with asthma, kidney stones, PMS, depression, acne, eczema, morning sickness in pregnant women, or hypertension. In many cases pregnant women will need to increase their B6 intake, as well as people who take any medication for a long period of time, like hormonal birth control or NSAIDs, because long-term use of these drugs can disrupt the metabolism and distribution of B6.

It is recommended to eat at least 2 mg of Vitamin B6 per day. You should not be surprised by now that liver is one of the best sources. Other good options include tuna, zucchini (and other types of summer squash), bananas, blackstrap molasses, potatoes, and some nuts. Cooking with acidic components usually strips the meal of vitamin B6, so if you want to retain as much as possible, don’t add too many acidic ingredients and also avoid freezing and processing if possible (think fresh vegetables instead of canned).

B7 – Biotin

Biotin promotes healthy hair, skin, nails and mucus membranes. It is necessary to maintain cognitive function and helps your body to metabolize nutrients.

Deficiencies can include thinning hair, rash around the eyes, nose and mouth and fatigue. Low levels of biotin can also cause tingling in arms and legs.

Many biotin supplements come 1000 to 10,000mcg dosages. Start at a lower dosage unless you know your deficiency is very severe. Maintenance dosages for daily use should be on the lower side.

B9 – Folate or Folic acid

The active form is L-5-MTHF.

Folate helps the body to metabolize protein and amino acids. It helps the body to form red blood cells and DNA synthesis. B9 is very important for human growth and development, especially during pregnancy.

Folic acid is a synthetic compound that cheap supplements and foods that are fortified contain, which is not recommended.

Folate on the other hand, is derived from natural sources in leafy greens or biologically active supplements.

Anyone with a genetic polymorphism such as MTHFR should always supplement with the methylated (L-5-MTHF) form as folic acid can be harmful and ineffective in the long run for these individuals. There is no harm in supplementing with the methylated form if you are not sure whether you have a genetic issue.

Folate is another member of the Top Three B Vitamins. Don’t confuse natural folate with synthetic folic acid. Folate is converted into the co-enzyme tetrahydrofolate (THF) responsible for the proper metabolism of nucleic and amino acids. It basically means folate is required for proper gene expression, which is critically important. Healthy cell division and red cell production are also dependent on vitamin B9.

We often say that genetics load the gun, but the environment (epigenetics) pulls the trigger. Diet is one of these triggers for sure, and getting an adequate amount of folate is important for keeping some of those triggers at bay. If you have one or more MTHFR mutation, your folate needs might be higher, as your body is not able to convert folic acid to folate and THF as effectively as individuals not affected by this genetic mutation.

Because B9 directly affects cell division and DNA in our body, it is extremely important during pregnancy and the early stages of our growth. Unfortunately, deficiencies in folate are very common, particularly often in pregnant women (who probably need it the most), excessive alcohol consumers, and individuals with poor gut health (patients with leaky gut or ulcerative colitis, for example). Folate absorption is improved by Vitamin C; these two work in synergy and a lack of Vitamin C can also contribute to folate deficiency.

Both men and women should strive for at least 400 micrograms per day, and pregnant women will need 600-800 micrograms minimum. Folate is easily and quickly excreted from the body via urine, so meeting the body’s needs can be difficult. Eating enough liver, spinach (and other leafy greens), beets, papaya, avocados, and pastured eggs is the best option. Most supplements contain folic acid, which is not only useless, but potentially harmful for MTHFR patients, so make sure your supplement of choice always contains folate.

B12  (Methylcobolamin, Cobalamin, Hydroxocobalamin, Cobamamide)

Helps with food metabolism and producing energy.  It helps the formation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis and promotes healthy brain and nervous system function.  Vegetarians and vegans should supplement with B12.

Choose Methylcobalamin over the Cyanocobalamin form.

B12 is also necessary for your immune system to function properly.  Many companies offer a sublingual tablet.  This is a little tablet that dissolves under your tongue.  It has direct access to your bloodstream and circumvents your digestive system.  Our liposomal form is also highly bioavailable and is also good for people with compromised digestion and absorption.

If you’re a vegetarian, or eat mostly fish or poultry, you may need more Vitamin B12. It’s one of the most important daily nutrients. Because it’s found mainly in organs of red muscle meats, vegetarians tend to be deficient.

Vitamin B12 in the for of methylcobalamin is easily available for your cells to absorb, giving you the most benefits, including:

  • Increased energy levels
  • Improved sleep
  • Reduced stress
  • Increased mental alertness
  • Improved immune function
  • Enhanced metabolism of carbohydrates and fats
  • Accelerated replacement and repair of all cells.

The less absorbable form of vitamin B-12 is cyanocobalamin – it has to go through your liver first, to produce a small amount of methylcobalamin. Only then it can be used and absorbed.

The Recommended Daily Allowance ranges from 1.8 mcg for teenagers, to 2.4 mcg for adults. Government studies revealed that typical Americans’ intake of vitamin B-12 is less than 70% of the Recommended Daily Allowance.

B-12 Spray more than compensates for that by providing 500 mcg per spray. This is much more than the RDA, but that’s OK.

One Caution…
Vitamin B-12 has the potential to interact with some medications,
so please be certain to inform your health care provider if you take it.

Vitamin B12 tops our list, and this vitamin is one of the most important nutrients for our health. According to Chris Kresser, vitamin B12 deficiencies are very common, even for those who consume plenty of B12-rich animal foods. It might be because the official daily recommendations are set way lower than we really need to maintain our health, it might be because our digestive health is in an overall poor state and we are not able to absorb as many nutrients as people with a healthy gut, or it might be because our bodies can’t synthesize this vitamin.

Of course, we are too busy with everyday life to keep track of which nutrients we can synthesize and which ones we have to consume in food, but when we eat a real food based diet with enough variety, we don’t even have to think about it. Health problems associated with vitamin B12 deficiency include Depressionacne,andeven psychological problems like OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder) can be closely related to low levels of cobalamin. DNA production, neurotransmitter production, and even production of the hormone serotonin are affected by how much or how little B12 we consume and absorb.

Vitamin B12 levels are often left unchecked, as symptoms like depression, anxiety, unexplained weight loss, fatigue/lethargy, or autism are commonly overlooked and not automatically linked with nutrient deficiency by many doctors (despite growing evidence). But this nutrient is so vital for every cell in our body, we should do our best to always make sure we have enough. If you suspect any deficiency, the best thing you can do is get tested for serum (blood) levels of that particular nutrient. Here is a great post about preventing vitamin B12 deficiency.

Many people who go vegan believe that because B12 can actually be stored in the liver, they have enough stored for later from those days when they still consumed animal products, but this is simply not true. It may work for a little while, but the reserves in the liver will eventually run out, and this is often when symptoms will emerge. There is no way you can get enough Vitamin B12 as a vegan unless you supplement with a good quality product that contains methylcobalamin. This is not to say that being vegan is a bad choice, but you have to keep in mind that you need B12 to stay alive and you can’t find it in plant foods. Along with liver (obviously), sardines and salmon are the best sources of vitamin B12. Scallops, tuna, and shrimp are also great. Grass-fed meat, especially lamb, is probably the best source outside the seafood group. Those with MTHFR mutations should be sure to select supplements in the form of methylcobalamin as this is the activated form that is easier for their bodies to work with. Absorption of vitamins, and especially B12 can be greatly reduced by the use of proton pump inhibitors – the famous Purple Pill that gives short-term relief for a high long-term price.

Symptoms Associated with Vitamin B12 Deficiency

From Wikipedia:
“Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to anemia and neurological dysfunction. A mild deficiency may not cause any discernible symptoms, but as the deficiency becomes more significant symptoms of anemia may result, such as weakness, fatigue, light-headedness, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing and pale color to the skin. It may also cause easy bruising or bleeding, including bleeding gums. Gastrointestinal side effects include sore tongue, stomach upset, weight loss, and diarrhea or constipation. If the deficiency is not corrected, nerve cell damage can result. If this happens, vitamin B12 deficiency may result in tingling or numbness to the fingers and toes, difficulty walking, mood changes, depression, memory loss, disorientation and, in severe cases, dementia.”

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

  • Small intestine conditions (Crohn’s or Celiac Disease, bacterial growth, parasites)
  • Surgery (removed parts of stomach or small intestine, including weight loss surgery)
  • Immune system Disorders (Graves’ Disease or Lupus)
  • Atrophic Gastritis (thinned-out lining of the stomach)
  • Pernicious Anemia (difficulty absorbing Vitamin B12)
  • Long-term use of acid-reducing drugs
  • Heavy alcohol consumption.

More Benefits of Adequate Vitamin B12

It’s by far the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. It plays a key role in the normal functioning of your brain and nervous system, and in the formation of your blood.

The American Heart Association advises patients with high levels of homocysteine to be certain of getting enough folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 in their diet. When homocysteine reaches high levels in the body, it can be harmful to the heart. Evidence suggests that high homocysteine levels can cause cardiovascular problems, and it is associated with stress and brain disease.

To reduce homocysteine levels, one study revealed that a person who took 2000 mcg of oral methylcobalamin per day for four months, reduced homocysteine levels from 113.4 micromoles per liter to 8.2 micromoles.
That’s pretty significant!

You might like to read this blog: Vitamin B12: Most People Are Deficient

Vitamin B Complex

Many vitamin B supplements are made as a complex blend of all B Vitamins. If you suspect a deficiency, the best thing you can do is get tested first, add foods rich in a variety of different nutrients (because as we already know, vitamins and minerals work together, not in isolation, and often deficiency of one can be caused by not enough of the other). If you are pregnant, nursing, or struggling with mental health concerns or alcohol addiction, it is probably a good idea for you to consider a B-complex supplement that includes methylated B vitamins to support your energy levels, hormone and co-enzyme function, metabolic functions, and proper gene expression.

It is very unlikely that the premixed formula will match your individual needs – some people need more B5, others need B6, some need niacin, others should be on niacinamide. Real food is always a better choice. If you avoid animal products for any reason, please take note of your body’s B Vitamin needs and consider adding some eggs and occasional humanely raised grass-fed meat or wild seafood into your diet, or at least a good quality supplement. Your health should always come first, especially if you are already contending with any physical or mental health concerns. Check our guide to healthy fatsfat soluble, and water soluble vitamins, and stay tuned for more information about important nutrients. We have covered crucial vitamins and macro nutrients (sugarsfats, and proteins), but we still need to learn about the minerals our bodies need and crave. Until then, stay nourished!

Author: Alicia Passmore