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**Physics of Sub-Nano Water by Dan Nelson**

When understanding the technology harnessed to produce a superior hydrating water, entirely composed of sub-nanometer particles, one should begin with a discussion of thermodynamics. The science of thermodynamics involves the movement of heat; the reversible transformation of heat into other forms of energy such as mechanical energy. The first law of thermodynamics deals with the conservation of energy. When any quantity of energy disappears in one location or under a specific set of conditions, an equivalent amount of energy must appear elsewhere in the same system, even if converted into a different form of energy. Energy can never simply disappear – it must be conserved. Commonly referred to as the entropy principle, the second law of thermodynamics is the degradation of the total energy in a system.

An example would be the observation that energy, as heat, always flows from a body of higher temperature to one of lower temperature. Normally, entropy would be a macroscopic variable describing a bulk property of matter; a quantitative measure of how disorganized (degraded) a physical system is. So the second law says: for any closed system, the entropy (magnitude of disorganization) always increases. James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist, developed a kinetic theory of gases in 1859, which was based on statistical averages. His was a method by which the macroscopic properties of a volume of gas molecules could be predicted from a microscopic model. This lead to the important *probable velocity distribution* of the gas molecules, based on his model, which is the **range** of velocities or how the whole collection of molecules deviates from the kinetic average.

**The probability velocity of a random gas molecule could be computed assuming three conditions are met. They are:**

1. The particles are mutually independent of each other.

2. The particles interact randomly with no preferred direction.

3. The particles are free to move uniformly in space.

Less than two decades later, Maxwell’s work inspired Ludwig Boltzmann to apply statistical probability calculations to any collection of particles, which met the same three conditional criteria. However, Boltzmann clarifies and expands upon the second law by formalizing the theorem of the *equipartitioning of energy*, which by virtue of the theorem’s probability basis makes Boltzmann the father of ‘statistical mechanics’. His insight into energy was that it would be shared equally among all degrees of freedom when the system reaches thermodynamic equilibrium. In other words, a molecular system initially exists in a less probable state and then approaches a more probable state when it is agitated by heat or mechanical vibration until it reaches thermal equilibrium – its most probable state; the entropy is now at maximum.

Through logical reasoning, mathematically supported, it is obvious that the law of entropy increase is statistical, not absolutely certain. So, how does the above information apply to our topic of sub-nano water? In fact, of what significance are these ideas to **any** given collection of water particles? A careful analysis of water’s unique properties and characteristics strongly suggests internal structure and mechanics are far different then those of a gas. Water couldn’t be a random collection of independent molecules. It has heat transference properties and density characteristics far different then oxygen molecules, nitrogen molecules, carbon dioxide or any known mixture of gas atoms or molecular compounds.

The inescapable conclusion is the following: **water is non-conforming** to the first two of Maxwell and Boltzmann’s three computational conditions for a random and mutually independent collection of particles. Why is this so? Fundamentally, water molecules, comprised of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, are structured with a bonding angle between the oxygen and two hydrogen of 104.5 degrees. This is true for an independent molecule in its probable ground state. This bonding angle renders every water molecule bipolar with a prominent negative-positive charge structure. As negatively-positively polarized entities, these molecules now possess an unavoidable tendency to become involved with one another. This subsequent multiple molecular bonding obeys well understood scientific principles and forms structures that are stable and symmetrical.

Therefore, water exists, not as mutually independent molecules, but as polymolecular structures (particles) that are properly referred to as polyhedra. Under the vast majority of existing conditions, particularly laminar flow, (i.e. movement through piping systems or confining underground aquifers), water experiences negative thermodynamic fluctuations. Water molecules, under these thermodynamically degrading conditions, change their bonding angle to 109 degrees with an immediate shift in polyhedral geometry. The new geometry derives from a particle constructed of more than 160 water molecules resembling a geodesic dome with a grid of regular polygons defining the surface. The polyhedra possess a diameter of approximately one micron (one-millionth of a meter).

Between 95% and 98% of all the polyhedra in any bulk quantity of surface or inter-crustal water will exist in the higher probability micron configuration. The remaining 2% to 5% of total polyhedra are in a lower probability state and exist as a nanometer (one-billionth of a meter) size polyhedron with molecules bonded at an angle of 114 degrees. Now, remember the last time you saw a rainbow in the sky, a sundog, or sunlight passing through atmospherically suspended ice crystals? Think about water’s reflective and refractive properties. Either in its liquid (uncondensed) phase or solid (condensed) phase, water is a crystalline medium composed of polyhedral crystalline structures. Water is technically a crystal in any phase of its existence.

Unlike other crystals, water in its uncondensed phase has a mobile lattice structure as opposed to a stationary lattice, which it assumes in its condensed phase. As a vapor, water exists in small bulk quantities of polyhedra. Nevertheless, it is still crystalline when atmospherically suspended in either its uncondensed or condensed phase. The polyhedra of water are marginally more independent of their neighbors then the molecules locked into the polyhedral structures themselves. Subsequently, there does not exist the independence and randomness of motion within bulk quantities of water that exists in gasses and various other liquids. The cohesive forces are great enough to hold the polyhedra in close proximity, from 4 to 70 microns separation, depending on kinetic energy (temperature-motion) acquired by the bulk system.

The proximal positioning locks the polyhedra together in a perpetual state of **vortical motion**. Like ball bearings rolling about one another and yet not allowed to stray far a field, owing to the mutual exchange of attractive force, the polyhedra are forever bound in a whirling dance. Vortical motion of force bound entities, (particularly symmetrical three dimensional polyhedra), is a critical concept in view of the unique properties possessed by water. The bonding angle of water molecules and their geometric resultant are dictated by **energy**! However, energy derived from heat and pressure is not the determinant of bonding angle. I will express this in an alternate way for the sake of clarity and emphasis. Normal chemical, temperature-related thermodynamic fluctuations are not responsible for determining the oxygen to hydrogen bonding angle of the basic water molecule.

The bonding angle, a priori, geometrizes water into polyhedra. Thermal kinetics and pressure simply determine either decreased entropy, at which point the polyhedra cease vortical motion and move into a static lattice structure forming ice (water in its condensed phase), or increased entropy and vortical velocity until cavitation facilitates the polyhedra’s escape from the surface at the boiling point. Water molecules draw energy straight from vacuum space. Think of a vacuum medium as a limitless well of energy and the cohesion bound water polyhedra as the pump. The relativistic principle behind this is simple: matter tells space how to curve and space tells matter how to move. As particles of mass draw upon vacuum for energy, vacuum becomes the vector determinant of the bulk commodity’s motion.

Think of this as quantum thermodynamics where there is freedom of uniform motion in space with constraints imposed by the fifth dimensional geometry of vacuum space. Higher dimensional geometry implies exaggerated degrees of curvature. With this information in mind, how is sub-nano water created? To begin with, it won’t come into existence spontaneously under “normal conditions”. According to the laws of quantum mechanics, at the quantum level there is time reversibility – things can happen in any direction. The arrow of time points in either direction for entities on the atomic/molecular scale. On the micro level, nothing seems to have a preference for one movement of time over the other. Forward or backward time movement is irrelevant to a particle down in the quantum world. This requires that we abandon our thinking in terms of chemical (kinetic) thermodynamics and focus strictly in terms of quantum thermodynamics.

Entropy can increase in an ‘open’ system! An example would be the ordered deposition of ions in a crystal lattice. The manifest growth of order represents decreased entropy; that is, a lower probability state. Water enjoys the status of being an ‘open’ system in its liquid phase. Heat transfer decreases entropy in water by shifting it into a condensed phase via the deposition of polyhedra into the ice lattice or the highly ordered fractal pattern of a snowflake. All three states of water represent what would be considered highly improbable but *coherent quantum states* involving the restructuring of water’s crystalline molecular particles into much more highly ordered structures. Supporting and creating these highly coherent structures is the proprietary function of quantum thermodynamics. Water, as an ‘open’ system is exponentially susceptible to the quantum state of the vacuum medium which is often referred to as *zero point energy*.

Bringing any pure water to a higher coherent quantum state and maintaining it there requires the **manipulation** of quantum thermodynamics. This type of quantum engineering is accomplished with a unique laser that actually produces a time-reversed particle wave. Technically, this is a virtual particle wave running in the near ultraviolet end of the spectrum. This laser has a higher degree of phase coherence (by a factor of 100) then a conventional EM laser no matter where the EM laser is running in the electromagnetic spectrum. The virtual laser imposes coherence (structure) on the vacuum medium around and through a given volume of water and rotates energy out of vacuum into the fundamental water molecules, thus determining the geometry and size of the water polyhedra.

As entropy decreases (time reversed energy always runs thermodynamics in reverse), water physically expresses this by reorganizing fundamental particles and structures to acquire a higher coherent quantum state. The molecular based structures jump from the lower (more probable) state in mathematically predictable quantized stages with different crystalline shapes of progressively smaller size. This technology has succeeded in reducing micron-sized particles to less than nanometer in diameter. In conclusion, micron-sized polyhedra are not conductive to being transported across the cell membrane. Whereas, sub-nanometer polyhedra are perfectly efficient (100%) at traversing the membrane wall and thus represent the most efficient transport for any nutrient or medication to the cell’s interior.

Any bonding angle less than 104.5 degrees is not permissible. A bonding angle of 145 degrees and above represents the breakdown of the molecule’s bi-polar properties.

This author is in disagreement with conventional wisdom regarding the Coriolis effect. The rotational torque of spinning water going down your drainpipe may, in effect, derive from the same forces responsible for water’s internal vortical motion.