No products in the cart.
Death by Medicine: References
1. Lazarou J, Pomeranz B, Corey P. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. JAMA. 1998;279:1200-1205.
2. Rabin R. Caution About Overuse of Antibiotics. Newsday. Sept. 18, 2003.
3. Calculations detailed in Unnecessary Surgery section, from two sources: (13) http://hcup.ahrq.gov/HCUPnet.asp and (71) US Congressional House Subcommittee Oversight Investigation. Cost and Quality of Health Care: Unnecessary Surgery. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1976
4. Calculations from four sources, see Unnecessary Hospitalization section: (13) http://hcup.ahrq.gov/HCUPnet.asp and (93) Siu AL, Sonnenberg FA, Manning WG, Goldberg GA, Bloomfield ES, Newhouse JP, Brook RH. Inappropriate use of hospitals in a randomized trial of health insurance plans. NEJM. 1986 Nov 13;315(20):1259-66. and (94) Siu AL, Manning WG, Benjamin B. Patient, provider and hospital characteristics associated with inappropriate hospitalization. Am J Public Health. 1990 Oct;80(10):1253-6. and (95) Eriksen BO, Kristiansen IS, Nord E, Pape JF, Almdahl SM, Hensrud A, Jaeger S. The cost of inappropriate admissions: a study of health benefits and resource utilization in a department of internal medicine. J Intern Med. 1999 Oct;246(4):379-87.
5. National Vital Statistics Reports. Vol. 51, No. 5, March 14, 2003.
6. Thomas et al., 2000; Thomas et al., 1999. Institute of Medicine.
7. Xakellis, G.C., R. Frantz and A. Lewis, Cost of Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Long Term Care, JAGS, 43 – 5, May 1995.)
8. Barczak, C.A., R.I. Barnett, E.J. Childs, L.M. Bosley, “Fourth National Pressure Ulcer Prevalence Survey”, Advances in Wound Care, 10- 4, Jul/Aug 1997
9. Weinstein RA. Nosocomial Infection Update. Special Issue. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol 4 No. 3, July Sept 1998.
10. Forth Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), February 25, 2000, Vol. 49, No. 7, p. 138.
11. Greene Burger S, Kayser-Jones J, Prince Bell J. Malnutrition and Dehydration in Nursing Homes:Key Issues in Prevention and Treatment. National Citizens’ Coalition for Nursing Home Reform. June 2000.
12. Starfield B. Is US health really the best in the world? JAMA. 2000 Jul 26;284(4):483-5. Starfield B. Deficiencies in US medical care. JAMA. 2000 Nov 1;284(17):2184-5.
13. HCUPnet, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
14. Leape L. National Patient Safety Foundation Press Release. Nationwide Poll on Patient Safety Oct 9, 1997 New York.
15. The Troubled Healthcare System in the U.S. The Society of Actuaries: Health Benefit Systems Practice Advancement Committee. Sept. 13, 2003. http://www.soa.org/
16. Leape LL. Error in medicine. JAMA. 1994 Dec 21;272(23):1851-7.
16a.Brennan TA, Leape LL, Laird NM, Hebert L, Localio AR, Lawthers AG, et al. Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 370-376.)
17. Campbell EG, Weissman JS, Clarridge B, Yucel R, Causino N, Blumenthal D. Characteristics of medical school faculty members serving on institutional review boards: results of a national survey. Acad Med. 2003 Aug;78(8):831-6.
18. Possible Conflict of Interest Within Medical Profession. Aug. 15, 2003 HealthDayNews.
19. World Health Organization, Press Release Bulletin #9, December 17, 2001.
20. Angell M. Is academic medicine for sale? N Engl J Med. 2000 May 18;342(20):1516-8.
21. McKenzie J. Conflict of Interest? Medical Journal Changes Policy of Finding Independent Doctors. June 12, 2002. ABC News.
22. Crossen C. Tainted Truth: The Manipulation of Fact in America. 1996. Touchstone Books.
23. Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N, Petersen LA, Small SD, Servi D, Laffel G, Sweitzer BJ, Shea BF, Hallisey R, et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events. Implications for prevention. ADE Prevention Study Group. JAMA. 1995 Jul 5;274(1):29-34.
24. Vincent C, Stanhope N, Crowley-Murphy M. Reasons for not reporting adverse incidents: an empirical study. J Eval Clin Pract. 1999 Feb;5(1):13-21.
25. Wald, H and Shojania, K. Incident Reporting in Making Health Care Safer: A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety Practices, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 2001.
26. Grinfeld MJ. The Debate Over Medical Error Reporting. Psychiatric Times, April 2000. Vol. XVII Issue 4.
27. King, G. III, & Hermodson, A. Peer reporting of coworker wrongdoing: A qualitative analysis of observer attitudes in the decision to report versus not report unethical behavior. 2000 Journal of Applied Communication Research, 28, 309-329.
28. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P. Goodman and Gilman’s: The pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 1996 New York: Pergamon Press.
29. Kolata G. New York Times News Service. “Who cares when our drugs fail?” (San Diego Union-Tribune, Wed, Oct. 15, 1997: E-1,5.
30. Melmon KL, Morrelli HF, Hoffman BB, and Nierenberg DW. Melmon and Morrelli’s Clinical Pharmacology: Basic Principles in Therapeutics (3rd edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993.
31. Moore TJ, Psaty BM, Furberg CD. “Time to act on drug safety.” JAMA, May 20, 1998, 279 (19):1571-3.
31a. Cullen DJ, Bates DW, Small SD, Cooper JB, Nemeskal AR, Leape LL. “The incident reporting system does not detect adverse drug events: a problem for quality improvement.” Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement, Oct. 1995, 21 (10): 541-8.
32. Bates DW. “Drugs and adverse drug reactions: how worried should we be? JAMA, Apr 15, 1998, 279 (15): 1216-7.
33. Dickinson JG. Dickinson’s FDA Review. March 2000; 7 (3):13-14.
34. Cohen JS. Overdose: The Case Against the Drug Companies. 2001, Tarcher-Putnum New York.
35. Stenson J. Few Residents Report Medical Errors, Survey Finds. Reuters Health. Feb 21, 2003.
36. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Harvard School of Public Health. Methodology: Fieldwork conducted by ICR – International Communications Research, April 11-June 11, 2002.
37. Bond CA, Raehl CL, Franke T. Clinical pharmacy services, hospital pharmacy staffing, and medication errors in United States hospitals. Pharmacotherapy. 2002 Feb;22(2):134-47.
38. Barker KN, Flynn EA, Pepper GA, Bates DW, Mikeal RL. Medication errors observed in 36 health care facilities. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Sep 9;162(16):1897-903.
39. LaPointe NM, Jollis JG. Medication errors in hospitalized cardiovascular patients. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jun 23;163(12):1461-6.
40. Forster AJ, Murff HJ, Peterson JF, Gandhi TK, Bates DW. The incidence and severity of adverse events affecting patients after discharge from the hospital. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Feb 4;138(3):161-7.
41. Gandhi TK, Weingart SN, Borus J, Seger AC, Peterson J, Burdick E, Seger DL, Shu K, Federico F, Leape LL, Bates DW. Adverse drug events in ambulatory care. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 17;348(16):1556-64.
42. Medication side effects strike 1-in-4 April 17, 2003, Reuters
43. Vastag B. Pay attention: ritalin acts much like cocaine. JAMA. 2001 Aug 22-29;286(8):905-6.
44. Rosenthal MB, Berndt ER, Donohue JM, Frank RG, Epstein AM. Promotion of prescription drugs to consumers. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 14;346(7):498-505.
45. Wolfe SM. Direct-to-consumer advertising-education or emotion promotion? N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 14;346(7):524-6.
47. GAO/PEMD 90-15 FDA DRUG Review: Postapproval Risks 1976-1985, page 3.
48. MSNBC July 11, 2003
49. Suh DC, Woodall BS, Shin SK, Hermes-De Santis ER. Clinical and economic impact of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2000 Dec;34(12):1373-9.
50. Egger WA. Antibiotic Resistance: Unnatural Selection in the Office and on the Farm. Wisconson Medical Journal. Aug. 2002.
51. Nash DR, Harman J, Wald ER, Kelleher KJ. Antibiotic prescribing by primary care physicians for children with upper respiratory tract infections. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Nov;156(11):1114-9.
52. Schindler C, Krappweis J, Morgenstern I, Kirch W. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2003 Mar;12(2):113-20.
53. Finkelstein JA, Stille C, Nordin J, Davis R, Raebel MA, Roblin D, Go AS, Smith D, Johnson CC, Kleinman K, Chan KA, Platt R. Reduction in antibiotic use among US children, 1996-2000. Pediatrics. 2003 Sep;112(3 Pt 1):620-7.
54. Linder JA, Stafford RS. Antibiotic treatment of adults with sore throat by community primary care physicians: a national survey, 1989-1999. JAMA. 2001 Sep 12;286(10):1181-6.
58. Ohlsen K, Ternes T, Werner G, Wallner U, Loffler D, Ziebuhr W, Witte W, Hacker J. Impact of antibiotics on conjugational resistance gene transfer in Staphylococcus aureus in sewage. Environ Microbiol. 2003 Aug;5(8):711-6.
59. Pawlowski S, Ternes T, Bonerz M, Kluczka T, van der Burg B, Nau H, Erdinger L, Braunbeck T. Combined in situ and in vitro assessment of the estrogenic activity of sewage and surface water samples. Toxicol Sci. 2003 Sep;75(1):57-65. Epub 2003 Jun 12.
60. Ternes TA, Stuber J, Herrmann N, McDowell D, Ried A, Kampmann M, Teiser B. Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media and musk fragrances from wastewater? Water Res. 2003 Apr;37(8):1976-82.
61. Ternes TA, Meisenheimer M, McDowell D, Sacher F, Brauch HJ, Haist-Gulde B, Preuss G, Wilme U, Zulei-Seibert N. Removal of pharmaceuticals during drinking water treatment. Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Sep 1;36(17):3855-63.
62. Ternes T, Bonerz M, Schmidt T. Determination of neutral pharmaceuticals in wastewater and rivers by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2001 Dec 14;938(1-2):175-85.
63. Golet EM, Alder AC, Hartmann A, Ternes TA, Giger W. Trace determination of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents in urban wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Anal Chem. 2001 Aug 1;73(15):3632-8.
64. Daughton CG, Ternes TA. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change? Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Dec;107 Suppl 6:907-38. Review.
65. Hirsch R, Ternes T, Haberer K, Kratz KL. Occurrence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Jan 12;225(1-2):109-18.
66. Ternes TA, Stumpf M, Mueller J, Haberer K, Wilken RD, Servos M. Behavior and occurrence of estrogens in municipal sewage treatment plants – I. Investigations in Germany, Canada and Brazil. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Jan 12;225(1-2):81-90.
67. Hirsch R, Ternes TA, Haberer K, Mehlich A, Ballwanz F, Kratz KL. Determination of antibiotics in different water compartments via liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 1998 Jul 31;815(2):213-23.
68. Coste J, Hanotin C, Leutenegger E. Prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and risk of iatrogenic adverse effects: a survey of 1072 French general practitioners. Therapie. 1995 May-Jun;50(3):265-70.
69. Kouyanou K, Pither CE, Wessely S. Iatrogenic factors and chronic pain. Psychosom Med. 1997 Nov-Dec;59(6):597-604.
70. Abel U. Chemotherapy of advanced epithelial cancer-a critical review. Biomed Pharmacother. 1992;46(10):439-52.
71. Schulman KA, Stadtmauer EA, Reed SD, Glick HA, Goldstein LJ, Pines JM, Jackman JA, Suzuki S, Styler MJ, Crilley PA, Klumpp TR, Mangan KF, Glick JH. Economic analysis of conventional-dose chemotherapy compared with high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for metastatic breast cancer. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003 Feb;31(3):205-10.
72. Kaufman, M. Washington Post, May 18, 2002; Page A01.
73. US Congressional House Subcommittee Oversight Investigation. Cost and Quality of Health Care: Unnecessary Surgery. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1976. Cited in: McClelland GB, Foundation for Chiropractic education and Research. Testimony to the Department of Veterans Affairs’ Chiropractic Advisory Committee. March 25, 2003. http://www.fcer.org/html/Research/VAtestimony.htm
74. Leape LL. Unnecessary surgery. Health Serv Res. 1989 Aug;24(3):351-407.
75. Testimony to the Department of Veterans Affairs’ Chiropractic Advisory Committee ; George B. McClelland, D.C., Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research: March 25, 2003. http://www.fcer.org/html/Research/VAtestimony.htm
76. Coile RC Jr. Internet-driven surgery. Russ Coiles Health Trends. 2003 Jun;15(8):2-4.
77. Guarner V. Unnecessary operations in the exercise of surgery. A topic of our times with serious implications in medical ethics. Gac Med Mex. 2000 Mar-Apr;136(2):183-8.
78. Rutkow IM. Surgical operations in the United States: 1979 to 1984. Surgery. 1987 Feb;101(2):192-200.
79. Rutkow IM. Surgical operations in the United States. Then (1983) and now (1994). Arch Surg. 1997 Sep;132(9):983-90.
80. Linnemann MU, Bulow HH. Infections after insertion of epidural catheters. Ugeskr Laeger. 1993 Jul 26;155(30):2350-2
81. Seres JL, Newman RI. Perspectives on surgical indications. Implications for controls. Clin J Pain. 1989 Jun;5(2):131-6.
82. Chassin MR, Kosecoff J, Park RE, Winslow CM, Kahn KL, Merrick NJ, Keesey J, Fink A, Solomon DH, Brook RH. Does inappropriate use explain geographic variations in the use of health care services? A study of three procedures. JAMA. 1987 Nov 13;258(18):2533-7.
83. Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, Assessing Efficacy and Safety of Medical Technology (Washington D.C.: OTA 1978).
84. Tunis SR, Gelband H, Health Care Technology and Its Assessment in Eight Countries. Health Care Technology in the United States. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) 1995.
85. Zhan C, Miller M. Excess Length of Stay, Charges, and Mortality Attributable to Medical Injuries During Hospitalization. JAMA. 2003;290:1868-1874.
86. Injuries in Hospitals Pose a Significant Threat to Patients and a Substantial Increase in Health Care Costs. Press Relative, October 7, 2003. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.
87. Weingart SN, Iezzoni LI. Looking for Medical Injuries Where the Light Is Bright. JAMA. 2003;290:1917-1919.
88. MacMahon B. Prenatal X-ray Exposure and Childhood Cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 28 (1962): 1173.
89. The Health Physics Society http://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/q1084.html
90. Gofman JW. Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease: Dose-Response Studies with Physicians per 100,000 Population 1999. CNR Books.
91. Gofman J W. Preventing Breast Cancer: The Story of a Major, Proven, Preventable Cause of This Disease. 1996. CNR Books; 2nd edition.
92. Sarno JE. Healing Back Pain: The Mind Body Connection. 1991. Warner Books.
93. Siu AL, Sonnenberg FA, Manning WG, Goldberg GA, Bloomfield ES, Newhouse JP, Brook RH. Inappropriate use of hospitals in a randomized trial of health insurance plans. NEJM. 1986 Nov 13;315(20):1259-66.
94. Siu AL, Manning WG, Benjamin B. Patient, provider and hospital characteristics associated with inappropriate hospitalization. Am J Public Health. 1990 Oct;80(10):1253-6.
95. Eriksen BO, Kristiansen IS, Nord E, Pape JF, Almdahl SM, Hensrud A, Jaeger S. The cost of inappropriate admissions: a study of health benefits and resource utilization in a department of internal medicine. J Intern Med. 1999 Oct;246(4):379-87.
96. Showalter E. Hystories: Hysterical epidemics and Modern Media. 1997. Columbia University Press.
97. Fugh-Berman A. Reader’s Companion to U.S. Women’s History. Houghton Mifflin. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/women/html/wh_001200_alternativeh.htm
98. Thacker SB, Stroup DF (CDC) Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(2):CD000063. Continuous electronic heart rate monitoring for fetal assessment during labor.
99. Cole C. Admission electronic fetal monitoring does not improve neonatal outcomes. J Fam Pract. 2003 Jun;52(6):443-4.
100. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: scientific review. JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):872-81. Review.
101. Nelson HD. Assessing benefits and harms of hormone replacement therapy: clinical applications. JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):882-4) 9.
102. Fletcher SW, Colditz GA. Failure of estrogen plus progestin therapy for prevention. JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):366-8.
103. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, Jackson RD, Beresford SA, Howard BV, Johnson KC, Kotchen JM, Ockene J; Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33.
104. Rutkow IM. Obstetric and gynecologic operations in the United States, 1979 to 1984. Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Jun;67(6):755-9.
105. Family Practice News, February 15, 1995, page 29.
106. Sakala C. Medically unnecessary cesarean section births: introduction to a symposium. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(10):1177-1198.
107. VanHam MA, van Dongen PW, Mulder J. Maternal consequences of cesarean section. A retrospective study of intraoperative and postoperative maternal complications of cesarean section during a 10-year period. Eur J Obstet Reprod Biol 1997;74:1-6.
108. Weiner J. Smoking and Cancer: The Cigarette Papers: How the Industry is Trying to Smoke Us All. The Nation, January 1, 1996, p. 11-18.
109. Tobacco Timeline. http://www.tobacco.org
110. Lasser KE, Allen PD, Woolhandler SJ, Himmelstein DU, Wolfe SM, Bor DH. 2002. Timing of new black box warnings and withdrawals for prescription medications. JAMA. 2002 May 1; 287(17): 2215-20.
111. General Accounting Office (GAO), July 17, 2003 http://www.injuryboard.com/view.cfm/Article=3005
112. Weingart SN, McL Wilson R, Gibberd RW, Harrison B. Epidemiology of medical error. West J Med. 2000 Jun;172(6):390-3.
113. Five Nation Survey Exposes Flaws in the U.S. Health Care System. May 14, 2002. Journal of Health Affairs.
114. Institute of Medicine, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003a.
115. The Department of Health and Human Services And The Department of Justice Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control Program Annual Report For FY 1998, FY 2001. April 1999, April 2002.
116. CNN – Washington senate briefing, Abuse of Residents is a Major Problem in U.S. Nursing Homes -live coverage July 30, 2001
116 a. http://www.house.gov/waxman/
117. Mitka M. Unacceptable nursing home deaths unautopsied. JAMA. 1998 Sep 23-30;280(12):1038-9
118. New Data on North Carolina’s Nursing Home Residents. Medical Review of North Carolina, Inc. 7/21/2003.
119. Weinstein RA. Nosocomial Infection Update. Special Issue. Emerging Infectious Diseases. July-Sept 1998. Vol 4 No 3.
120. Report to Congress: Appropriateness of Minimum Nurse Staffing Ratios In Nursing Homes Phase II Final Report. December 24, 2001.
121. Press Release. Consumer Group Criticizes Thompson Letter Dismissing Report on Dangerous Staffing Levels in Nursing Homes. The National Citizens’ Coalition for Nursing Home Reform. March 22, 2002.
122. Bergstrom N. et al. Multi-site study of incidence of pressure ulcers and the relationship between risk level, demographic characteristics, diagnoses & prescription of preventive interventions. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996 Jan;44(1):22-30.
123. Miles SH. Concealing accidental nursing home deaths. HEC Forum. 2002 Sep;14(3):224-34.
124. Corey TS, Weakley-Jones B, Nichols GR. Unnatural deaths in nursing home patients. J Forensic Sci. 1992 Jan. 37(1):222-7.
125. Lloyd-Jones DM, Martin DO, Larson MG, Levy D. Accuracy of death certificates for coding coronary heart disease as the cause of death. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Dec 15;129(12):1020-6.
126. Thomas DR, Zdrowski CD, Wilson MM, Conright KC, Lewis C, Tariq S, Morley JE. Malnutrition in subacute care. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Feb;75(2):308-13.
127. Robinson BE. Death by destruction of will. Lest we forget. Arch Intern Med, 155(20):2250-1;1995 Nov 13.
128. Capezuti E. et al. The relationship between physical restraint removal and falls and injuries among nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 53(1):M47-52; 1998 Jan.
129. Phillips CD, Hawes C, Fries BE. Reducing the use of physical restraints in nursing homes: will it increase costs? Am J Public Health 1993 Mar;83(3):342-8.
130. Miles SH, Irvine P. Deaths caused by physical restraints. Gerontologist. 1992 Dec;32(6):762-6.
131. Annas GJ. The Last Resort – The Use of Physical Restraints in Medical Emergencies. N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 28;341(18):1408-12.
132. Parker K. et al. Deaths caused by bedrails. J Am Geriatr Soc, 45(7):797-802 1997 Jul.
133. Miles SH. Concealing accidental nursing home deaths. HEC Forum. 2002 Sep;14(3):224-34.
134. Katz PR, Seidel G. Nursing home autopsies. Survey of physician attitudes and practice patterns. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1990 Feb;114(2):145-7.
135. Overmedication of U.S. Seniors. Reuters Health, May 21, 2003.
136. Average Number of Prescriptions by HMOs Increases. Drug Benefit Trends? Vol 14, No 8. 09/12/2002
137. Prescription Drug Trends, Nov 2001; Kaiser Family Foundation.
138. Williams BR, et al. Medication use in residential care facilities for the elderly. Ann Pharmacother 1999 Feb;33(2):149-55.
139. AARP Medicare Prescription Drug Campaign
140. Press Release. California Reaches $100 Million Multi-state Settlement With Drug Giant Mylan Over Alleged Price-fixing Scheme. Attorney General, State of California. July 12, 2000.
141. Attorney General of North Carolina (and 34 other states) Reaches Settlement With Drug Giant. WRAL News, March 7, 2003.
142. Blowing the final whistle. Sunday November 25, 2001. The Observer, U.K.
144. Bernabei R, et al. Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer. SAGE Study Group. Systematic Assessment of Geriatric Drug Use via Epidemiology. JAMA 1998 Jun 17;279(23):1877-82.
145. Panel Names Estrogen as Carcinogen. Washington Post. December 16, 2000; Page A05.
146. Estrogen hikes ovarian cancer risk MSNBC Staff and Wire Reports, July 16, 2002) (Grady D. Study Recommends NOT using Hormone Therapy for Bone Loss Oct 1, 2003. New York Times.
147. Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on gynecologic cancers and associated diagnostic procedures: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1739-48.
148. Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2003 Jun 25;289(24):3243-53.
149. Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Effect of estrogen plus progestin on stroke in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 May 28;289(20):2673-84.
150. Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 May 28;289(20):2651-62.
151. Beral V; Million Women Study Collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet. 2003 Aug 9;362(9382):419-27.
152. Berens, D. Unhealthy Hospitals: Infection epidemic carves deadly path Poor hygiene, overwhelmed workers contribute to thousands of deaths. The Chicago Tribune. July 21, 2002